تحقیق علمی

دوره: چهارصد واژه ضروری برای آیلتس / فصل: علوم / درس 8

تحقیق علمی

توضیح مختصر

  • زمان مطالعه 11 دقیقه
  • سطح خیلی سخت

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فایل ویدیویی

متن انگلیسی درس

In this lecture we’re going to look at seven words connected with scientific research.

And the seven words are device instrument.

Law.

Pioneer sample specimen trial.

The next word is device device.

A device is an object that has been invented for a particular purpose.

For example the recording or measuring of something.

For example the device can track where you are at any time.

He’d touch the communications device to activate it.

She used the device to measure the speed of light.

We talk about an a an electronic device.

A mechanical device.

A wireless device.

And you can use a device.

Some synonyms.

Machine.

Instruments gadgets no gadget is an informal word for a device especially an electronic device.

Contraption.

That’s quite an old fashioned word for device and mechanism.

Device.

And the next word is instrument.

Instrument.

In science an instrument is a specialized tool or a device that is used to do a particular task or activity.

So for example in surgery a variety of instruments are used.

Weather is predicted using dozens of scientific instruments.

Doctors sterilize their instruments prior to surgery.

Some common collocations you can have an instrument for for a particular task a scientific instrument

you sterilize an instrument and you can have an a sensitive instrument.

And some synonyms tool.

Device mechanism.

Apparatus.

Equipment.

When you have lots of instruments you have equipment it’s an uncountable name.

Apparatus again you can have it twice.

Instrument.

The next word is law.

Law.

In scientific research a law is a scientific conclusion which explains a particular natural process

and there they are based on that piece of scientific experiments and observations over many years.

And some example sentences in stine’s work developed new laws of physics.

Newton’s laws of motion helped us to understand gravity.

Physical laws our conclusions which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.

We talk about the law of something looks at for example the law of motion.

Law of physics physical laws.

And some synonyms principle.

And rule.

Law.

And your next word is Pioneer.

Pioneer.

Someone who is referred to as a pioneer in a particular activity is one of the first people to be involved

in this activity or someone who makes a significant new development in it.

So for example he was one of the pioneers of genetic engineering.

John von Neumann was a pioneer in computer science.

Now you can also use the word pioneer as a verb.

So let’s just change this sentence a little bit.

John the Norman Python pioneered computer science.

I’m using this as a verb now.

And you can also turn the verb around and make it a passive.

So it’s sort of John von myman pioneered computer science you can say.

Computer science was pioneered by John Norman.

So pioneer the plural of the noun is pioneers.

But of course it’s a verb.

So pioneers pioneering.

Pioneered.

And some collocations.

You can be a pioneer in something or a pioneer of you can be a pioneering scientist and pioneered by.

Some synonyms.

Innovator leader.

Developer founder.

Inventor.

Pioneer.

The next word is sample.

Sample.

A sample of a substance is a small amount of it that can be examined and analyzed scientifically.

So for example.

Samples of blood were taken for DNA testing.

The mission would collect to rock and soil samples from the planet.

The doctor took some tissue samples to help diagnose the disease.

So the plural of sample of course is samples but you could also use it as a verb to sample sampling.

Sampled.

And some common collocations you take a sample.

You gather samples.

You can test a sample and a blood sample.

Some synonyms specimen.

Example.

Fragment.

Peace.

Sample.

And the next word is specimen.

Specimen.

A specimen is a single plant or animal which is an example of that particular species or animal or type

or substance.

And it can be examined by scientists to tell them about something about the species or the animal as

a whole.

So for example thousands of specimens of bacteria are kept at the laboratory.

They’ve gathered a number of fossils specimens from the cliff face.

He found the perfect specimen of this rare plant.

And of course the plural of specimen is specimens specimens and some collocations specimen of something

you collect specimens you gather specimens and you can find the perfect specimen.

Some sense Ms.

Sample example exemplar.

Illustration.

Specimen.

And the next word is trial.

Trial.

In science a trial is an experiment in which you test something by using it or doing it for a period

of time.

This is to see how well it works.

So if something is on trial it is being tested.

So trial comes from the word try.

And you try something.

For example patients have been treated with this drug.

In clinical trials.

The robots have been on trial for the past three years.

The new treatment has been undergoing trials.

So trials is the platform.

Something can be on trial to be on trial.

And a trial period a clinical trial.

And you conduct a trial.

And some synonyms test investigation.

Pilot.

Analysis.

Trial.

So those are your seven words for scientific research device instrument law pioneer sample specimen

trial.

So now do the practice quiz and complete their vocabulary rachal.

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