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متن انگلیسی درس
In this lecture we’re going to look at seven words connected with scientific research.
And the seven words are device, instrument, law, pioneer sample, specimen, trial.
The next word is device, device.
A device is an object that has been invented for a particular purpose.
For example the recording or measuring of something.
For example, the device can track where you are at any time.
He touched the communications device to activate it.
She used the device to measure the speed of light.
We talk about an a an electronic device, a mechanical device, a wireless device and you can use a device.
Some synonyms, machine, instrument, gadget now gadget is an informal word for a device especially an electronic device, contraption that’s quite an old fashioned word for device and mechanism.
And the next word is instrument, instrument.
In science an instrument is a specialized tool or device that is used to do a particular task or activity.
So for example, in surgery a variety of instruments are used.
Weather is predicted using dozens of scientific instruments.
Doctors sterilize their instruments prior to surgery.
Some common collocations, you can have an instrument for. for a particular task, scientific instrument.
You sterilize an instrument and you can have an a sensitive instrument.
And some synonyms tool, device, mechanism, apparatus, equipment.
When you have lots of instruments you have equipment, it’s an uncountable name.
Apparatus again you can have it twice.
The next word is law, law.
In scientific research a law is a scientific conclusion which explains a particular natural process and there they are based on reapeted of scientific experiments and observations over many years.
And some example sentences, Enstine’s work developed new laws of physics.
Newton’s laws of motion helped us to understand gravity.
Physical laws are conclusions which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.
We talk about the law of something, law of for example the law of motion, law of physics, physical laws.
And some synonyms principle and rule.
And your next word is pioneer, pioneer.
Someone who is referred to as a pioneer in a particular activity ,is one of the first people to be involved in this activity or someone who makes a significant new development in it.
So for example, he was one of the pioneers of genetic engineering.
John von Neumann was a pioneer in computer science.
Now you can also use the word pioneer as a verb.
So let’s just change this sentence a little bit.
John the Norman pioneered computer science.
So I’m using this as a verb now.
And you can also turn the verb around and make it a passive.
So instead of John von myman pioneered computer science you can say, computer science was pioneered by John Norman.
So pioneer the plural of the noun is pioneers.
But of course it’s a verb, so pioneers, pioneering, pioneered.
And some collocations.
You can be a pioneer in something or a pioneer of, you can be a pioneering scientist and pioneered by.
Some synonyms, innovator, leader, developer, founder, inventor.
The next word is sample, sample.
A sample of a substance is a small amount of it that can be examined and analyzed scientifically.
So for example.
Samples of blood were taken for DNA testing.
The mission would collect rock and soil samples from the planet.
The doctor took some tissue samples to help diagnose the disease.
So the plural of sample of course is samples, but you could also use it as a verb to sample sampling, sampled.
And some common collocations you take a sample, you gather samples.
You can test a sample and a blood sample.
Some synonyms specimen, example, fragment, piece
And the next word is specimen, specimen.
A specimen is a single plant or animal, which is an example of that particular species or animal or type or substance.
And it can be examined by scientists to tell them about, something about the species or the animal as a whole.
So for example, thousands of specimens of bacteria are kept at the laboratory.
They’ve gathered a number of fossils specimens from the cliff face.
He found the perfect specimen of this rare plant.
And of course the plural of specimen is specimens, specimens.
And some collocations specimen of something, you collect specimens, you gather specimens and you can find the perfect specimen.
Some synonyms, sample, example, exemplar, illustration.
And the next word is trial, trial.
In science, a trial is an experiment in which you test something by using it or doing it for a period of time.
This is to see how well it works.
So if something is on trial, it is being tested.
So trial comes from the word try. and you try something.
For example, patients have been treated with this drug in clinical trials.
The robots have been on trial for the past three years.
The new treatment has been undergoing trials.
So trials is the plural form, something can be on trial, to be on trial.
And a trial period, a clinical trial and you conduct a trial.
And some synonyms, test, investigation, pilot, analysis.
So those are your seven words for scientific research, device, instrument, law, pioneer, sample, specimen, trial.
So now do the practice quiz and complete the vocabulary record
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