متوندوره: چهارصد واژه ضروری برای آیلتس / فصل 14
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So in this lecture we’re going to look at seven words connected with texts specially academic texts, texts.
And these are the seven words abstract, bibliography, commentary, footnote, paper, periodical, precis.
And here’s your first word abstract, abstract.
An abstract is a, of an article an abstract of an article or a document is a short summary of the article or the document.
So it gives the main points and it’s commonly used in academic papers.
So here’s an academic paper and you can see the abstract at the top.
They’re very useful.
Many scientists only have time to read the abstracts of academic papers.
Some library indexes also contain abstracts or summary summaries of articles.
The abstract of many papers often tells you everything you need to know.
So we talk about an abstract of something, an abstract of a paper for example, you can read an abstract and write an abstract.
Some synonyms for abstract summary, precis, outline, synopsis.
Your next word bibliography, bibliography.
That’s a list of the books and articles that are referred to in the text of a book or the text of an academic paper.
And it’s There always used in academic books and papers and they’re put at the back of the books and papers.
Bibliography to the list of books and articles to come from the Greek biblio means books in Greek.
And graphy is to do with the writing so a bit a bit bibliography is writing a piece of text about books.
For example, readers interested in further readings should check the bibliography and the back of the book.
I have included an extensive bibliography at the rear of the book.
Please refer to the bibliography for references contained in the paper.
You can compile a bibliography, refer to the bibliography.
That means read it.
Similarly consult the bibliography.
People often write about an extensive bibliography, a very long one.
And there’s the plural of bibliography, bibliographies.
Synonyms for bibliography include reading list, further reading and a list of books.
A commentary is an article or a book, which explains or discusses something, so the writer of a commentary makes lots of comments usually very detailed comments about something.
So for example, Mr Barnes will be writing a weekly commentary about life in Poland.
It is an,.. end an insightful commentary about life in China.
He is a top political commentator from Moscow.
So you can have a commentary about, a commentary on, an informative commentary, a detailed commentary.
And the plural for commentary is commentaries.
A person who writes a commentary as a commentator, commentator, so commentary commentator.
Synonyms for commentary include an analysis, critique, review, explanation, exposition and description.
Footnote is your next word, footnote.
A footnote is some writing a note at the bottom at the foot of a page which gives more detailed information about something in the text.
So for example, she has added several footnotes to the document.
You can add footnotes to the page by selecting the footer option.
That’s if you’re using a word processor like Microsoft Word.
So you can add a footnote, refer to the footnote, you have a footnote in a book, and accompanying footnote.
Your next word is paper, paper
So an academic writing a paper is a long formal piece of writing often describing some research.
So here you have a lady, an academic maybe a professor giving a paper.
So he recently published a paper in the journal.
This controversial paper suggests that many cases are self-inflicted and she will present a paper on her research into the life style of the gibbon tomorrow at 1.30.
So we talk about present a paper, publish a paper, an academic paper, and you talk about a paper on.
Also give a paper is a very common collocation, so academics give papers when they read things out when they give a lecture.
Some synonyms our thesis, dissertation, essay, article, research, study.
And where do papers get published? well they get published in periodicals.
So periodical, they are magazines, often on an academic subject or to do with current affairs to do with news politics, which are published at regular intervals.
So for example, once a month or, once every two months or, once a week or once a year, they are periodicals because they’re published at fixed periods.
So for example the university library contains an extensive collection of periodicals.
This important periodical is published six times annually.
He has published several papers on this subject in a variety of popular periodicals.
So you can have an educational periodical, popular periodical, a periodical article.
And you can edit a period, edit a periodical as well.
Are some synonyms journal, magazine and publication.
Here’s your next word precis, precis
A precis is basically a summary it’s a short recent account of something which gives the key points but not the details.
It’s similar to an abstract in fact, praise.
You can see in the middle,we have the French letter e the e acute
So it’s basically a French word that’s come into English.
No we haven’t changed the spelling at all.
It’s quite rare for this to happen in English but it does happen occasionally.
The plural of precis is in fact spout exactly the same but is pronounced precis.
So you have one precis and two precis.
For example a precis of the manuscript was sent to the magazine.
The power of this story cannot be judged from a precis of the plot.
And he wrote a precis of the book for The Times newspaper.
So you can have a precis of something such as a book, precis af a book, you can have a brief precis, you can also have if it’s bad ,an inaccurate precis.
So are some synonyms for precis, summary, synopsis, outline as well outline.
So there are your seven words then abstract, bibliography, commentary, footnote, paper, periodical and precis.
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