توصیف علت و معلولدوره: چهارصد واژه ضروری برای آیلتس / فصل 27
توصیف علت و معلول
- زمان مطالعه 14 دقیقه
- سطح خیلی سخت
دانلود اپلیکیشن «زبانشناس»
این فصل را میتوانید به بهترین شکل و با امکانات عالی در اپلیکیشن «زبانشناس» بخوانید
متن انگلیسی فصل
Welcome to the lecture all about cause and effect at vocabulary.
And here are your seven words.
A tribute chain reaction derive initiate interdependent interrelate and repercussion.
So your first word is a tribute a tribute.
It’s a verb.
So with this verb you stress the second syllable here.
It also works as a noun where you stress the first actual beat.
But here as a verb attribute If you attribute something to an event.
You think that the thing was caused by that event.
He attributed his stomach-ache to something he ate at lunch.
So he thinks his lunch caused his stomach-ache.
Here’s another example this man has a really bad hangover.
His head hurts.
He feels sick.
What caused his hangover.
Well last night he went to a big party and drank lots of beer too much beer.
He thinks the beer at the party caused his hangover.
So he attributes his hangover to the beer and the party.
Here is some example sentences.
Women tend to attribute their success to luck according to some study.
The increased death rate was attributed to a severe outbreak of influenza.
She attributed his bad temper to ill health.
Some collocations you attribute success to something.
What caused your success.
Well you attribute your success to it.
You attribute an increase in something to something what’s the cause of the increase.
You can use Also these two adverbs partly attribute directly attribute so he directly attributed his
hangover to drinking too much beer last night.
It’s a verb so you can have all these endings attributing attributed.
And some synonyms for.
He blamed the beer on his hangover associate Kinect.
He connected his hangover to the party trace.
The next word actually phrase had chain reaction chain reaction a chain reaction is a series of events
and each event leads to the next event.
Here are some dominos a line of dominoes.
If I push the first domino down it will knock down the next domino which should knock down the next
domino and the next and the next and the next.
A chain reaction will happen if I push the first domino.
There will be a chain reaction where the other dominos are knocked over.
A gas canister exploded and started a chain reaction of explosions.
The factory closure led to a chain reaction of job losses in the local economy.
Splitting an atom starts a chain reaction in which more and more atoms are split and you have a nuclear
bomb going off.
So you have a chain reaction of events.
You can say a chain reaction occurs.
You can set off a chain reaction and trigger a chain reaction.
Your next word is drive.
Note the pronunciation.
Not drive but drive the drive.
If something is derived from something else it comes from that something.
In the Cup.
Coffee comes from coffee beans.
So coffee the drink coffee is derived from coffee bean.
Aspirin that drug is derived from something called Sally sellick acid.
I think that’s how you say it anyway though.
And the word Easter.
Is derived from aosta.
Which is the pagan goddess of spring apparently.
And he drives a lot of fun from playing football.
You might derive a lot of fans from watching football.
So you derive things from derived from derive authority.
Derive enjoyment you enjoy.
You derive enjoyment and pleasure from watching football.
So drivers driving day arrived and you can have a noun from drive.
A directive is something that has come from something else.
So coffee is a derivative of coffee bean.
And some synonyms for derive the very common words get this extract so you extract enjoyment.
You were quiet enjoyment from watching football octane.
Received or receive you receive enjoyment do you receive pleasure.
You get pleasure in fur has a slightly different meaning there.
Next where is initiate.
So if you initiate something you start it or you cause it to happen.
So the man with the starter gun he initiated the race.
He started the race.
He initiated it.
They wanted to initiate a debate on economic.
Peace talks were initiated by the president in May.
Such ideas may initiate educational reform and they may start educational reform so you initiate a process.
Or an action or precedings.
And initiate often goes with the preposition by.
The peace talks were initiated by the president.
So with a verb of course you can have these endings initiating initiated.
You can also have the noun initiation in an initiation is when you start doing something for the first
So some synonyms for a initiate start.
Of course set up commence launch trigger.
And your next word is interdependent.
So things are interdependent.
They need each other or they are dependent on each other.
There is a connection very close connection between the two things.
This is the yin yang symbol a Chinese symbol of Chinese idea that says that different forces are interdependent.
For example light and shadow are interdependent.
I mean they look different but light.
Is better with shadow and shadow needs light.
They they are interconnected.
Night and Day interconnected.
And the prefix intern means between so interdependent means that they are dependent.
There are there is a dependency between thing.
And some example sentences in our globalized world countries are increasingly interdependent.
So what one country does affects lots of other countries.
Happiness is derived from a variety of interdependent factors all linked together.
Computers on the Internet are not just interconnected.
They are also interdependent.
So if one computer gets a virus so will lots of other compute.
So we live in an interdependent world.
We have an interdependent economy.
And you can use adverbs like increasingly this is a very common adverb to use with interdependent increasingly
And some synonyms for interdependent interconnected.
Mutually dependent is another one is not so commonly used but it might be an I’ll try reading tests
of course and listening tests reciprocal.
And your next word is into the late interrelate.
So if things are interrelated they have an effect on each other.
It’s very similar to interdependent than fat.
So weather patterns around the world are interrelated.
And again inter tells you that.
There is a relationship between things here between is what in turn means.
So the body and mind are interrelated.
If your body is sick then your mind will suffer as well.
Social skills are in part about how we interrelate with other people.
All the sounds of your body are closely interrelated.
So things are interrelated with.
And into the lake closely is a very common collocation.
Course it’s a verb so into it late into a late ting interrelated.
But you can also have a noun into a relationship into a relationship.
And some synonyms fall into the late affect connect.
And your final word is of repercussion.
If an action or an event has repercussions it causes unpleasant things to happen as a result.
Usually for a long time afterwards.
Repercussion begins with Ri of course again and again.
It was an event which was to have painful repercussions.
Members of Congress were warned of the repercussions if they voted for war.
This seemingly minor virus was to have serious repercussions for her health for years.
Soooo serious affects for a long time.
And things have repercussions and we often fear repercussions as well.
And some synonyms.
That suggests bad things as well.
Fallout reverberations is more of a neutral word.
And side effects again side effect usually has negative.
And negative sense negative meanings.
So very Your 7 cause and effect.
Words and phrases attribute so I attribute attribute.
It’s a verb in this lecture.
Attribute chain reaction derive initiate interdependent into relate and repercussion.
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