فرآیندهای علمی (پیشرفته) قسمت اول

دوره: چهارصد واژه ضروری برای آیلتس / فصل: علوم / درس 2

فرآیندهای علمی (پیشرفته) قسمت اول

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In this lecture we’re going to look at some vocabulary connected to scientific processes.

And here are your seven words excelerate activate condense conduct contaminate contract and deplete.

So your first word is excelerate.

Accelerate okras the pronunciation of accelerate.

Ach.

Ach.

Celebrate.

Accelerate.

If something accelerates it gets faster and faster.

Note as well as the double c you’ve got one l in the word accelerate.

So for example growth will accelerate to 3 percent next year the government will accelerate its privatization

program.

CCTV showed the car accelerating to two hundred kilometres per hour.

Two hundred KP H.

We have to accelerate to something or by accelerate development 6 salit accelerate the process and accelerate

as a verb so you can have accelerates accelerating accelerated.

And the noun is acceleration acceleration.

The opposite of accelerate is decelerate decelerate not d accelerate but decelerate.

And here are some synonyms for accelerate.

Step up.

Advance haisten increase Quicken and stimulate.

You know what is activate.

Activate.

If something is activated then it starts or rather causes something to start.

It’s often used with machinery equipment and scientific processes.

And you can see at the start of the word activators act.

Key if Put.

Put it another way.

An action starts.

And you can see the word act at the start.

So for example security cameras can be activated by movement.

So they can be started by movement.

I have a voice activated computer sheet active I activates enzymes.

You can activate something by you can activate a system an alarm.

You can also activate things automatically activate automatically.

Now it’s a verb so you can have activates activating activated activation is the noun.

And the opposite of activators deactivate.

And again it’s an adverb so you can have the same endings.

For that as well for deactivate the activation.

And some said an.

Trigger.

Stimulate.

Initiate and start.

Eunuch’s word is condense.

Condense.

When a gas or a water vapour is condensed it becomes a liquid.

So here is a pan of Meatballs as some of the water in the pan has condensed on the bottom of the lid

is turned back into water.

So water vapour condenses to form clouds.

As air rises it becomes cooler and the moisture condenses.

So you can condense in to condense out of.

So condense is a verb so you can have condenses condensing condensed.

And the the noun for condense.

Changes the spelling a little bit contain condensation condensation.

Swoony to Adam a sort of the E.

So I noticed this shift in stress from condense to condensation.

Our next word is conduct.

Conduct.

And this word has lots of different meanings.

So for example a conductor in an orchestra conducts the orchestra.

A researcher carries out or conducts research.

You can also have a code of conduct which was like a set of rules that you’re using the now on.

But in science what we’re going to look at is some materials let’s heat and electricity go through it.

So those materials conduct heat and electricity.

So for example here are some electrical pylons or Towers and the electrical cables.

And the cables are conducting electricity.

So note the stress on the verb as well conduct.

Conduct stress on the second syllable.

We say conduct when we are using the noun.

The word conduct is all about behaviour and as in a code of conduct or criminal conduct.

But when we use the verb which is what I’m going to look at here stressed the second syllable conduct.

So water conducts heat faster than air.

The molecule.

Did not conduct electricity.

So they got heat and electricity.

This third example relates to the use of conduct as carrying out something so the scientist is conducting

research into a cure for cancer.

Some common collocations conduct heat conduct electricity conduct business.

This is again the carry out meaning.

And conduct research.

Conducts conducting these are the different forms conducted conduction is the noun.

But you can also have the noun conductivity.

Conductivity so the can the conductivity of metal is very high.

Metal conducts electricity very well and heat very well not good conductivity.

The first three words The First we synonyms here relate to conducting heat and electricity a kind of

transport sense of the words of carry transport and send.

These next three relate to carrying out a sense of conduct conduct as in carrying out carry out handle

and administer.

Here’s the next word contaminate contaminate.

If something is contaminated it becomes dirty or harmful or even dangerous like this water here.

This water is contaminated maybe by chemicals from a factory.

Things can be contaminated by oil dirt chemicals even of radiation.

So a chemical spill contaminated the river.

The river was contaminated by a chemical spill spill.

So here we are using the active in the first sentence and the passive in the second sentence.

This next sentence used the verb as an adjective.

So thousands of people fell ill because of contaminated water.

So contaminated there was an adjective.

So we often use contaminate with water contaminate water contaminated water contaminate the sea contaminated

by contaminated by chemicals contaminated with chemicals.

You can use both.

Here are the different forms contaminating contaminated and the now contamination contamination.

Some synonyms for contaminate pollutes.

Harm.

Poison.

In fact.

Here’s the next one contract.

Contract again.

Contract can have lots of different meanings.

It can be a noun which should you would say contract which is a legal document or it can be a verb contract

contract which is what I’m going to look at here as I’m looking at scientific processes now when something

contracts it becomes smaller or thinner or shorter when metal gets hot it expands but when it cools

it contracts which is a big problem for metal railway track.

Railway tracks which expand when it gets hot and contract when they get cool.

Blood is expelled from the heart pushed out of the heart when it contracts.

Metal contracts when it cools.

And here’s a more general use of the word the Greek economy contracted by 2 percent last year.

So basically means things get smaller.

Expand and contract goes together off the muscles contract.

You can things can contract rhythmically or rapidly.

And the different forms of the word contracts contracting contracted.

And contraction is the process.

It’s a noun.

So some synonyms for contract get smaller narrow.

Decrease.

The climb.

Shrink.

Shrink means something that gets smaller.

The final word is deplete the plate deplete means you use something up.

It literally means you empty out something so you use up you deplete a store of something and deplete

means you reduce the amount in this store so you can deplete your store of food.

So it suggests that you use something up that you already have.

So for example some chemicals deplete the ozone layer.

Things like stress illness and environmental pollution depletes your energy levels.

The Russian central banks reserves were rapidly depleted during the recent currency crisis.

They said their reserves of money of dollars were depleted.

So you deplete resources you deplete reserves funds and you increasing or with you with the environment.

These days you deplete there was only a 2.

So depletes as one of the forms depleting depleted and depletion is the noun.

So here are some synonyms for deplete.

Consume An empty.

Use up.

Diminish.

The juice.

And jerame.

So there were your seven words for scientific processes accelerate activate condense conduct contaminate

contract and deplete.

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