فرآیندهای علمی (پیشرفته) قسمت دوم

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فرآیندهای علمی (پیشرفته) قسمت دوم

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In this lecture I’m going to take you through 10 words connected with scientific processes.

And here are the 10 words dissolve, evaporate, filter, extract, harness, synthesize and dilute.

So here’s your first word dissolve, dissolve.

You can dissolve, notice by the way the z sounds z diss not dis but diss, dissolve.

You can dissolve some substances such as sugar and salt in water.

So if you add sugar to water and stow it, the sugar breaks up into tiny pieces, it dissolves so you can’t see it anymore.

For example, salt and sugar dissolve in water.

Here is an instruction, shake the vial gently to dissolve the mixture.

Vine is a bit like a test tube.

We’ll dissolve our partnership immediately.

So here dissolve is not a scientific use, it’s for breaking up a business partnership so it can be used more widely than chemistry.

Basically means a break-up, you dissolve something in, you can dissolve something rapidly or slowly.

And completely, you can dissolve something completely.

The sugar completely dissolve.

It’s a verb dissolve, so you can have dissolves, dissolving and dissolved.

There is a noun which is dissolution here by the way you have the dis not the diz but dis sound dissolution.

But this isn’t really used in science.

Dissolution means an organization or a system that is broken up so often used it in history.

In fact we talked about the dissolution of the monasteries when the monasteries were broken up and banned from the English Church.

So some synonyms for dissolve, break up, liquify is a possible synonym as well but it’s a very specialized word.

Some people think that melt is a synonym of dissolve or disappear but not really.

That’s not a very scientific way to look at the word dissolve.

Breaking up is the best when I think.

Your next words evaporate, evaporate.

When a liquid evaporates, it turns into a gas. It goes into the air.

So here you have a hot cup of coffee on a cold day so you can see the steam, the vapour rising from the coffee into the cold air.

So the water in the coffee is evaporating into the air.

I use the word vapour. You can see the word vapour here in the word evaporate.

Steam is also called water vapour.

So a liquid that turns into a gas, is known as a vapour evaporate.

For example, moisture is drawn to the surface of the fabric and evaporates.

Sea water evaporates into the air to form clouds.

The warm,morning sun evaporated the dew on the grass.

The dew, dew is water that appears on grass early in the morning.

You can evaporate into, such as into the air, so things evaporate quickly or slowly, water evaporates, there is a very common collocations.

Evaporate is a verb so evaporates, evaporating, evaporated, and evaporation is the noun evaporation.

And some synonyms for evaporate, dissipate, disappear possibly, vaporize is a nice when they vaporize sounds like star tracker, dry out.

And your next word is filter, filter.

If you filter a substance, you pass the substance through something which separates or removes smaller substances.

So for example here’s a coffee filte,r is made of paper.

You pour hot water through the coffee and the water.

Well that carry small pieces of coffee into the jug underneath and it leaves the large pieces of coffee in the coffee filter.

Here are some examples of the word filter.

First, filter the water to clean it.

The liver filters toxins from the body.

Toxins are like poisons.

Use a water filter before drinking, very important.

So you can filter wate,r filter out, filter through.

And again filter is a verb filtering, filtered.

And here’s a noun.

Now watch what happens to the ending here.

That’s how you spell filtration, filtration.

It’s a very common miss spelling, but filtration is the process of filtering something so the e in filter is dropped so not filtration but filtration, filtration.

Some synonyms for filter, clean, purify, refine, sift, sift is usually used when you filter out big objects like stones and rocks from soil.

And then the word strain, strain.

Strain is often used when you pour hot water through tea leaves, so you strain tea, but you filter coffee.

Here’s your next word extract, extract.

If you were extract something, you remove it, you take it out like this poor boy in the dentist.

The dentist is extracting a tooth from the boy’s mouth.

The dentist is taking the tooth out of the mouth, removing it extracting the tooth, extract.

Okay extract watch the ending here, bouncing extract.

You stress the second syllable here, extracts can be used as a verb or a noun but as is often the case with English words we tend to stress the second syllable in a verb.

When we use this word as a noun we say extract extract.

So if it’s a noun you tend to stress the first syllable.

In this electoral focus on the verb extract, extract.

So the dentist extracted my tooth.

Extracted can be connect with information too.

The police questioned him for hours. They wanted to extract information from him.

Citric acid can be extracted from oranges and lemons.

You can extract things from, extract something from, extract information very common collocation, extract oil from the ground.

So here we have it as a verb extracts, extracting, extracted.

You can also use this as a noun, you contend the verb into a noun to get the word extraction.

So the dentist performed an extraction, when his teeth are not often used though that word.

But here are some synonyms for extract, remove, draw out, derive, derive, glean.

You often glean information, pull and elicit, elicit

Your next one is harness, harness.

If you harness something, you bring it under your control and you use it.

Now here is a horse in a harness.

We have, by using the harness we’ve harnessed the power of the horse.

We control the horse, but not only do we control the horse.

We can now use the horse to pull things.

So we’ve controlled it and now we can use it.

Some more examples, we use solar panels to harness the power of the sun.

Turkey plans to harness the waters of the Euphrates river to make hydro-electric power.

We want to harness international support to achieve our aims.

So you often harness support, harness knowledge, harness energy and with an adverb you can harness things effectively.

If it’s a verb, using as a verb harnesses is this present simple, harnessing, harnessed.

Harness is also a noun.

So a horse wears a harness.

Some synonyms, make use of, utilize, exploit andcontrol.

But remember harness is kind of a combination of control and make use of.

Tame, tame is closer to control doesn’t really, doesn’t really suggest using something, channel.

Your next word is synthesize, synthesize.

When you synthesize something, you make a substance using chemical or biological reactions.

But you can also synthesize ideas which means bringing ideas together, synthesize.

Now I spelt it here with a Z.

That’s quite a common spelling especially in American English.

In British English, you can also spell it with an i s e ending.

British English tends to use lots of I S E endings ,whereas American English prefers I Z E endings.

But both are correct.

In fact I’m British but I tend to use the I Z E endings myself.

Some examples, after extensive research, Albert Hoffman succeeded in synthesizing acid.

Vitamins cannot be synthesized by the human body.

It was their aim to synthesize these factors into a comprehensive view of life.

Some common collocations here synthesize in, synthesize protein, synthesize molecules, synthesize ideas.

Incidentally when you synthesize proteins and molecules, you make them, you make proteins, you make molecules.

But when you synthesize ideas, you bring ideas together maybe making a new idea as well.

So synthesizers is a verb synthesizes, synthesizing, synthesized.

You can also have an adjective synthetic.

We often have synthetic materials, so clothes that are made from chemical or artificial materials are synthetic materials not natural ones.

And synthesis.

When you bring ideas together, you create a synthesis of ideas.

And some synonyms for synthesis for synthesize, combine, make whole, bring together, make.

And our last one is dilute, dilute.

You dilute a liquid, if you dilute a liquid it becomes weaker.

We often dilute liquids with water, but you can also dilute ideas which make ideas weaker.

So for example, if you give orange juice to your baby, always dilute it with water make it weaker. Because the acid is too strong for babies.

The chemicals sipping from the contaminated land, quickly diluted in the water.

Here’s one for ideas.

Their ideas tend to dilute the significance of the Holocaust.

This one is about making ideas weaker, diluting an idea.

So you dilute something with something, you can also dilute by, and you often dilute solutions as well.

As a verb dilutes, diluting, diluted.

You can also have the noun dilution.

The process of diluting something is called a dilution.

And some synonyms for dilute, weaken, watered down. lessen.

And here’s a nice word, temper, temper you often temper ideas.

You make them less extreme.

So there are your seven scientific processes words, dissolve, evaporate, filter, extract, harness, synthesize and dilute.

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