زیست شناسیدوره: چهارصد واژه ضروری برای آیلتس / فصل 15
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Welcome to the lecture on biology and we’re going to look in particular at biological processes in this particular video.
So here are your seven words decay, dormant, exhale, inhale fertilize, reproduce and suppress.
So here’s the first word decay, decay
When something such as a dead animal or a dead plant decays, it slowly destroyed or eaten up by natural processes like insects and bacteria.
So if you have a bad tooth, the tooth can decay because bacteria slowly eats away the tooth.
Similarly with fruit.
Here’s a an abandoned piece of fruit and it’s decaying in the ground so bacteria, insects are going to eat it.
Here’s some example sentences.
Many insects enjoy a diet of rotting and decaying vegetation.
The difference between rotting and decaying , rotting suggests maybe a bad smell as well as it’s breaking down so there’s a bad smell with rotting, decay suggest something that’s very slow.
The bodies buried in ash started to decay.
And the old theatre was left to decay.
So here you’ve got a building that’s decaying so buildings, towns even economies can decay, if they’re just left never repaired, never fix.
They slowly decay.
Some common collocations with decay.
You can have decaying vegetation, decaying flesh, tooth decay and a process of decay.
So decay is a verb, so decays, decaying, decayed, decay is also a noun as well.
And some synonyms for decay, rot, decompose.
This is particularly with bodies.
And deteriorate, that’s useful with buildings.
So the theatre deteriorates.
Dormant, is your next word dormant.
Something that’s dormant is not active, it’s not growing but it can become active later on, it can start growing again or become active later on, dormant basically means sleeping.
And it comes from the Latin word Dormy, which means to sleep.
This girl at the moment is dormant.
And this volcano is dormant as well this is Mount Fuji in Japan.
It last erupted in 7007.
And it’s dormant now.
But maybe one day it will erupt again.
So dormant, dorm in fact, if you see a word that begins with dorm, it means something to do with sleeping.
So for example, there were dormitory is a building where people sleep.
Here are some example sentences, the dormant volcano St. Helens suddenly erupted in 1980.
The virus remains dormant in nerve tissue until activated.
The UN United Nations is reactivating in peace talks that have been dormant for two decades.
Going to activate the peace talk.
You can be dormant for a period of time, so dormant for 10 years, dormant for two hours, you can be in a dormant state, you can lie dormant, you can remain dormant.
And some synonyms for dormant, inactive, inert, latent, sluggish and asleep of course asleep.
Exhale is your next word.
It means to breathe out, so when people exhale they breathe out the air from their lungs.
This person is exhaling I think under water actually.
Exhale ex means out, so you hale out.
And for example, you should Inhale through your nose and exhale through your mouth.
If you want to breathe properly.
Carbon dioxide is exhaled through your mouth.
She slowly exhale the cigarette smoke.
So you exhale through something or from something, you can exhale slowly and you can exhale air.
And here with some different forms for exhale, exhales exhaling, exhaled, exhalation is the process of exhaling.
Some synonyms for you exhale, breathe out, let out, give off, emit.
And the opposite of exhale is inhale,inhale.
So when you inhale you breathe in, so you can inhale not just air but nice smells, pleasant aromas fresh air.
These two, this couple I think is by the seaside and they are inhaling some fresh air, they’re breathing in. In
Some synonyms, some example sentences rather.
He took a long slow breath, inhaling deeply.
He was treated for the effects of inhaling smoke.
She inhaled the scent of the flowers.
So you can inhale deeply, when you breathe in deeply, you inhale deeply, you can inhale slowly, inhale air and you can inhale smoke which is not good for you.
Inhales is one of the forms inhaling, inhaled, inhalation, inhalation is the process the noun.
And some synonyms, breathe in, and sometimes smell or sniff as well, if you, if it’s connected with an aroma with a smell.
Suck in, you suck in air.
Your next word is fertilize, fertilize.
In a human, in fact in any mammal.
When this female of the species gets fertilized, she gets pregnant.
So when the sperm from the male joins with the female’s egg the egg becomes fertilized and then the woman becomes or the female of the species becomes pregnant.
Plant similarly are fertilized but their fertilized when pollen is transferred from the male parts of one flower to the female parts of another flower.
Here’s, here the land on a farm is being fertilized with some chemical spray.
Often it’s to do with getting nutrients into plants as well as creating new plants.
And the word is comes with the word fertile.
So fertilizers you make something fertile.
Here So example sentences, at certain varieties of plant cannot be fertilized with their own pollen.
A certain sperm count is needed in order to fertilize the egg.
And the land was fertilized for see the planting.
So you can fertilize plants, and you can, you fertilize something with something else, that you fertilize eggs with sperm for example.
You can artificially fertilize.
And you can successfully fertilize something as well.
To fertilize is a verb so fertilizes, fertilizing, fertilized , fertilization is the process.
And some synonyms, inseminate, germinate, specially with plant and pollinate with plants.
enrich, enrich is a slightly different use of the word fertilizers.
So for example with the chemical spray on a farm they were enriching the soil.
Of cours the end product of fertilization is reproduce.
So when something is reproduced, it’s produced again.
In biology it refers to the production of new animals and new plants, animal and plant reproduction.
And in this picture you can see lots of pollen from flowers.
Which is all used in plant reproduction.
So reproduce and the re There you produce again.
It basically means produce again.
We are reproducing ourselves at an excessive rate.
Genes are copied and swapped during sexual reproduction.
And in this society women are defined by their ability to reproduce .
At least in some societies anyway.
Some common collocations animals and plants reproduce, you can reproduce a species, sexual reproduction.
So it’s a verb so reproduces, reproducing, reproduced and reproduction is the noun.
The process of reproducing something.
Some synonyms for reproduce, breed, animals when they reproduce they breed people don’t breed.
Recreate, replicate, clone as well possibly clone is a more a more modern scientific technique for reproject for reproduction.
And here’s the next word suppress, suppress.
If a natural function of your body is suppressed, then it stopped so for example by a,.. with drugs or illness it stopped.
So if your, if your liver function is suppressed ,it doesn’t work so well sometimes it stops.
So for example, the growth of cancerous cells can be suppressed through radiation.
There is evidence that UV light can suppress the immune system.
And a doctor must learn to suppress his feelings.
So you can suppress the immune system, suppress the appetite, you don’t want to eat so much.
Treatment sometimes suppresses.
The functions of your body, and drugs suppress things drugs can suppress the growth of cancer cells.
So suppress, suppresses, suppressing, suppressed, suppression, suppression is another form,
So some synonyms stop, cut off, contain and inhibit.
So there are your seven biology words decay, dormant, exhale, inhale, fertilize, reproduce and suppress.
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