فرآیندهای علمی (پایه)

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فرآیندهای علمی (پایه)

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In this section we’re going to look at seven words connected with basic processes, basic scientific processes.

And here are the seven words, boil, burn, cool, freez, melt, heat, process.

And here is the word boil, boil.

So when a hot liquid like water, boils or when you boil the liquid bubbles appear in it and the liquid starts to turn into steam, also known as vapour into a gas.

So in this lake the water is boiling and it’s letting off steam.

So some example sentences of the word.

You slowly bring the water to the boil.

Water boils at 100 degrees centigrade.

And the next sentence is a paraphrase of this, another way of saying the same thing.

The boiling point of water is 100 degrees centigrade.

And some forms while boil as a verb so boils, boiling which is also an adjective you can say it is boiling today when it’s very hot the water is boiling.

And boiled.

And some collocations just a couple you can boil water, you can boil a liquid.

And when you when you move when you raise the temperature the liquid to boiling points you bring it to the boil.

So you bring to the boil.

No synonyms for the word so there you are boil.

And the next word is burn, burn.

If you burn a fuel or if a fuel burns, it is used to produce things like heat, light and energy.

And here is some example sentences for burn.

The power plant burns coal from Poland.

Scientists are developing new fuels that burn more cleanly.

A bulb filamen,t when exposed to the atmosphere burns out.

Burns out means it stops burning. So it goes out.

And some forms for the word burns this is a verb burns, burning, burned.

In British English we often spell it burnt.

Burned and burnt both of the third forms of the verb burn, and you can also use this as an adjective.

So burnt food, burnt toast.

Some collocations so you burn something down, you can burn fuel.

Something that burns very strongly, burns fiercely, burn fiercely.

And you can be badly burned, your food or a person can be badly burned.

And some synonyms, these are synonyms for when we burn fuel so you heat, you incinerate, combust.

The wood blaze has a very similar meaning to burn but is used differently.

So for the word blaze, the fire blazed away for hours.

You don’t say the power plant blazes coal from Poland, you say the power plant burns coal from from Poland.

So this is for burning fuel so there you are burn.

Your next word is cool, cool.

It means when something cools or, when you cool something its temperature goes down.

We need to make the temperature of something go down, it cools.

So after taking a sauna, cool yourself quickly in the snow, so reduce your body temperature in the snow.

Large fans cool the engine to keep it working.

There was a cooling breeze coming in off the ocean. A cooling breeze.

Here is the use of the verb form the present participle as an adjective.

So some of the verb forms cools, cooling, cooled.

And some collocations cool down, cool off, you can cool water and cool air.

That could be a, you can cool air or, you can have cool air.

Chill is one of the synonyms I thought of for cool, but chill slightly different.

Chill means to make something cold.

So if you chill wate,r you make the water cold, whereas cool means to reduce the temperature.

Not necessarily to make it cold and you redeuce temperature. So there you are your word cool.

The next word is freeze, freeze.

If a liquid freezes or if a substance which contains a liquid freezes then it becomes solid because of the very low temperature.

It’s when a liquid turns into a solid, because it’s a very very cold.

For example, water freezes when the temperature drops below zero degrees centigrade, when the temperature drops below zero degrees centigrade.

The ground froze solid.

We’re going to freeze to death.

And some forms for the verb freezes, freezing.

And this can be used as an adjective as well.

So and froze is the third form.

No it’s not, it’s the second form, is the second form.

Freeze, froze, the third form of the verb is frozen, frozen.

And again that can be used as an adjective as well, frozen food.

And some collocations words that go together freeze over, so the water can freeze over.

Deep freeze, something can freeze solid.

And you can freeze to death, if you’re very cold.

Some synonyms Harden, is the only one I can think of harden.

We often use hardan when we’re talking about the ground, the soil, the earth when the ground freezes, it hardens but otherwise, so Freeze doesn’t have any synonyms there.

So there you are freeze.

And the next word is heat, heat.

So when you heat something you raise its temperature, you increase its temperature.

So it’s the opposite of the verb cool.

You heat something out , but you cool something down.

And it can also be used as a noun when refering to warmth.

Some example sentences, heat the water until it is boiling.

Heat the leftover food in the microwave.

The plants withered under the intense heat of the sun.

And here heat has been used as a noun.

It’s an uncountable noun which means warmth, the quality of being hot.

So it’s you can never say heats in, when it’s a noun.

So some forms heats for the verb, heating is a verb forms.

Heated, heated can be used as an adjective as well.

And some common collocations you heat water, you heat something up, so you can heat the water up.

These are both verb forms, verb uses of the word.

And these are noun uses.

You generate heat, and you can have intense heat.

Some synonyms warm for the verb.

You can warm liquid up, you can warm water, you can heat water has the same meaning, raise the temperature, make hot.

And some noun from , warmth is the kind of noun synonym.

So there you are heat.

And the next word is melt, melt.

When a substance melts or when you melt a substance, it changes or it starts to change into a liquid.

Often because it’s been heated or it’s been left in the sun because it’s been left in heat and melt is in scientific terms, it’s the opposite of the word freeze.

So when you when you heat something it turns from a solid into a liquid so it melts the opposite processes is freeze.

Similarly cool is the opposite in scientific terms of heat.

So when you, when you heat something it can melt when you cool something down it can freeze.

So let’s look at Melt.

The ice cream is melting.

Oh no.

And the melted butter to the cake mixture.

So this is for cooking and melted here is an adjective melted butter.

Icebergs are melting because of global warming.

And some forms then for the verb melts, melting, melted which are of course can also be used as an adjective.

And some collocations melt away, you melt something over, so you melt butter over the cooker, snow melts, glaciers melt.

No synonyms.

It’s very precise word melt.

The next word is process, process.

And in a general sense in general meaning a process is a series of actions, some actions which are carried out in a particular orde,r in order to achieve a particular result.

And in biology, in chemistry a process is a genis series of actions which often produce a change of some sort.

So a series of actions.

Plants synthesize food using a process known as photosynthesis.

Arthritis occurs in elderly people as part of the aging process.

You separate the contents of the blood using a process called centrifugation.

And some forms for the word process, processes, processes.

It’s the plural noun and it can also be a verb.

So processes, processing, processed.

And the noun form processor.

And some collocations for process.

We talk about a process of something, a gradual process, a complicated process, the healing process.

And some synonyms, procedure, course, system.

So process.

So those are seven words for basic processes, process, boil, burn, cool, freeze, melt and heat.

And don’t forget now do the practice quiz in the next lecture and complete the vocabulary record which you can download from the resources for this lecture.

Good luck with those.

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