روش های پژوهشدوره: چهارصد واژه ضروری برای آیلتس / فصل 25
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In this video we’re going to look at seven words connected with research methods.
And here are the seven words callate, correlate, empirical, hypothesis, theory, qualitative and quantitative.
And here’s the first word callate, callate.
When you collate pieces of information, you gather them all together for usually for examination or analysis later on.
So you organize maybe lots of bits of paper for analysis later on.
And here’s some example sentences.
She has spent years collating the data on which her study is based.
They have begun to collate their own statistics on racial abuse.
The organization has collated a great deal of information on reading difficulties.
And some common collocations you collate information, you collate data, you collate figures, and you can collate statistic.
And callate is a verb so collate,s collating, collated and collation is the, is the process of collating something.
And some synonyms for callate, assemble, collect, gather.
Your next word is correlate, correlate.
So if one thing correlates with another there was a close connection between them often because one thing causes the other thing. So you can say that if two things, two things correlate.
So for example eating too much correlates with getting fat, because eating too much causes getting fat.
Some more example sentences, obesity Here you are, obesity correlates with an increased risk of diabetes.
The political views of spouses correlate more closely than their height.
And the loss of respect for British science is correlated to a juiced funding.
Some common collocations something correlates with something else, something correlates to something else.
Things can correlate strongly or closely.
There’s a very strong connection between them.
So it’s a verb so correlates, correlating, correlated, correlation is a noun.
So there is a correlation between obesity and diabetes.
And some synonyms for correlate, equate, compare, link, interact, tie in.
And your next word is empirical, empirical.
So empirical evidence or an empirical study relies on practical experience or evidence rather than actual theory.
So it’s things you can see, things you can measure as evidence.
So for example there was no empirical evidence to support the existence of God.
She published a series of empirical studies.
Empirical findings confirm the existence of black holes.
So we talk a lot.
This is a very very strong correlation empirical evidence.
But you can also have empirical data, empirical study, empirical finding.
Empirical is an adjective.
And you can have it as an adverb too, empirically, empirically.
And some synonyms, evidence-based, experimental, observational and factual.
And the next word is hypothesis, hypothesis.
A hypothesis is an idea which is suggested as a possible explanation for something, for a particular condition or situation but it hasn’t yet been proved to be correct ,so it is just an idea.
But it’s an idea that needs to be tested with evidence or experiments to see if it’s true.
So this lady here she’s got a hypothesis.
Now she wants to go away and test it and find some empirical evidence to prove her idea.
So for example, work will now begin to test the hypothesis that flies are affected by WiFi signals.
Different hypotheses have been put forward to explain why these foods are more likely to cause health problems. So you got hypotheses.
The plural of hypothesis.
You can test a hypothesis, supports a hypothesis, confirm a hypothesis or propose a hypothesis.
So there’s the word again and just to remind you the plural is hypotheses.
You can also hypothesize, this is the verb for making a hypothesis.
So you hypothesize something.
There’s also an adjective hypothetical.
So a hypothetical idea needs to be tested.
Some synonyms, idea, assumption, conjecture, thesis, proposition.
Also sometimes you can have theory as a synonym of hypothesis.
But really in science, they’re different things.
They’re not the same at all.
In science a hypothesis is an idea that needs testing.
A theory is a hypothesis that has been successfully tested and proved to be correct so it’s a fact.
So in science the two words are actually different.
So for example in science, the theory of evolution is pretty much a scientific fact there’s evidence for it.
Lots of evidence so far as a scientist is concerned, a theory is true it’s like a fact.
But the confusion comes with general use.
A lot of people use the word theory to suggest an idea, which in science that’s not the case at all.
In science, a theory is a proven hypothesis not just an idea.
So let’s go on to the word theory.
So in science a theory is a group of tested hypotheses or propositions and they’re commonly regarded as correct.
So a theory can be used as a principle to explain and predict the universe around us.
But as I said before in sometimes in common everyday use the word theory is often used just to refer to the ideas themselves not the facts behind them.
So for example, there are conflicting theories as how children best learn to read.
So that’s an idea.
Einstein’s theory of relativity explains much of our understanding of the universe.
So this is a law.
This is the use of theory as a law, is a physical law, scientific fact if you will.
In theory, mapping the human genome may lead to thousands of cures for disease.
And here the word theory is being used as a kind of line of thought.
So as you can see theory is got several different meanings really.
We talk about the theory of something, you can develop a theory.
Then according to the theory of something and in theory, in theory is quite a common fixed phrase.
So we talk about theories.
Something can be theoretical as well, that’s the adjective.
So some synonyms.
The first to relate to the scientific use of the word, law and rule.
But don’t forget you can also mean things like ideas and arguments, propositions and philosophies in more general use.
Here’s the next word qualitative, qualitative.
Which means relating to the nature or character or standard of something its qualities or features rather than two quantities.
So it might be talking about people’s thinking or people’s opinions.
So for example, there are, we know that there are qualitative differences in the way children and adults think.
So the two adults here thinking in different ways to the child, to the baby.
Then there’s that sentence.
Other example ,high quality research may contain a combination of qualitative and quantitative data.
Her qualitative research includes interviews and observations.
so qualitative research often includes interviews with people, observations of people, acting, doing something.
We often talk about a qualitative difference.
A qualitative study, a qualitative piece of research and qualitative data.
And you can turn it into an adverb qualitatively.
And some synonyms.
It’s difficult to think of synonyms for this word but here are some examples of qualitative data.
So interviews, focus group, observation, action research, case study.
So when we talk about the research, we often talk about qualitative data and the other one quantitative data.
Quite hard to say in fact quantitative.
And this relates to different sizes, different amounts of things different numbers, data, measurements, quantities amounts.
Things you can measure, things you can quantify.
So for example, she made use of quantitative data of migration patterns.
Their quantitative research included these statistical analysis of currency fluctuations.
Quantitative studies have shown no measurable impact on the economic effects of a ban on smoking.
So we can talk about a quantitative study or data, quantitative research and analysis.
And you can have an adverb as well quantitatively.
And some synonyms, statistical, measurable, numerical.
So there are your seven words for research methods, collate, correlate, empirical, hypothesis, theory, qualitative and quantitative.
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