فرآیندهای فکریدوره: چهارصد واژه ضروری برای آیلتس / فصل 33
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In this lecture we’re going to be looking at vocabulary connected with thought processes.
And here are the seven words, anticipate, appreciate, comprehend, conceive, envisage, infer, recall.
So anticipate, anticipate.
If you anticipate an event, you think about it in advance that it’s going to happen in your, you’re ready for it or you’re excited about it.
So for example, this man is anticipating life in a new country.
He’s about to arrive he’s getting quite excited, he’s getting ready to start his new life.
So anticipate anti means before from the Latin word anti
So for example, banks anticipate further rate cuts over the next three months.
I anticipate rain, sorry I’m disappointed rain, so I took an umbrella.
Police anticipate that rivalry between drug gangs will lead to war.
And some collocations you anticipate a decline or a slow down or rise.
Things can be widely anticipated as well, widely anticipated.
Some forms for the verb anticipates, anticipating, anticipated, and then the noun form is anticipation.
So anticipate, anticipation.
And some synonyms expect, predict, forecast, foresee, you can wait for, and await.
Wait for and await mean the same thing.
Here’s the next word, appreciate, appreciate.
If you appreciate the situation, then you understand it or you know what it involves and. if it’s a good thing, it can also mean that you’re thankful for it, so you can appreciate the beauty of nature the calm the tranquillity of nature.
You understand how important it is and you can be thankful for that as well.
So for example, many governments don’t appreciate the importance of free speech.
It is essential to appreciate the side effects of using antibiotics.
This next sentence, I greatly appreciate your help, is more a formal way of thanking someone.
Say that you really liked your thank for their help.
So you can appreciate the importance or the seriousness of things.
You can much appreciate.
So I much appreciated your help.
You can fully appreciate, when you fully understand a situation and you fully appreciate it.
So some verbs different forms appreciates, appreciating, appreciated.
And the noun form is appreciation, appreciation.
So an appreciation of a situation is an understanding of that situation.
So somebody might have a strong appreciation of the importance of football for example.
Some synonyms, understand, recognize, acknowledge.
If you. is a comprehend means understand.
But we often use this word when we actually don’t understand something when we don’t comprehend we can’t comprehend something.
Not always but it’s a quite a common use. so this woman here she can’t comprehend something she doesn’t understand it.
So for example, he can’t comprehend the implications of the new policy.
Patients may not have enough information to comprehend their illness.
And the third sentence is a more positive use of comprehend, we fully comprehend the seriousness of the situation.
So it’s a more formal use of understand.
So you can fully comprehend, or at the other extreme scarcely comprehend.
You can comprehend the importance of something and the implications of something.
Some verb forms comprehends, comprehending, comprehended and the noun form is comprehension, comprehension.
You often do reading comprehension comprehensions in tests to show how much you understand.
And some synonyms, understand of course, grasp, appreciate as well can be a synonym and realize, realize.
Conceive means you think about or you imagine something and again is often used with not and can’t, but not always it’s often used.
For example when you come up with an idea, you come up with a good idea, you conceive an idea.
So for example, the government was unable to conceive the idea that they were wrong.
J.k. Rowling conceived the idea of Harry Potter when she was on a train.
She cannot conceive of herself being anything else but a doctor.
And some common collocations you conceive of something or you conceive that something.
You can’t conceive of something and you can conceive an idea.
So the verb forms conceives, conceiving, conceived, and conception is the noun form conception.
And some synonyms, believe, perceive, realize, excerpt.
And the next to come up with and create, a more about conceiving ideas you come up with or you create ideas.
If you envisage something, then you imagine it.
But you imagine it’s true all real or likely to happen in the future.
So this woman here, she is envisaging something for the future.
Envisage vis in the middle from vision so if you in vision, if you envisage something, then you, you make or you put in to your head in your head a vision of something of the thing.
For example, he envisages a better future for the country.
The peace plan envisaged the creation of an independent Palestinian state.
I cannot envisage a stronger EU, you appear the union, without making it more democratic.
So you envisage the creation something, you envisage the possibility, you can originally envisage, so when you envisage something at the start you originally envisaged.
You can previously envisage something.
So envisages, envisaging, envisaged are the verb forms.
Note no noun form for this word.
And some synonyms envision, envision, envisage envision very similar verbs often used, often swapped in use.
so envision, envisioned, envisioning.
Imagine, consider, see, visualize and picture.
If you infer something, then you work out that something is true.
Often with incomplete information.
You’ve got to read between the lines, to understand something completely.
We often have to infer information in a text and detectives often have to infer information if they don’t have enough evidence.
So you infer things from an incomplete picture.
So for example, I inferred from what she said that you have not been well.
So she didn’t say this person is not well.
She maybe said, oh she didn’t look very nice, she didn’t look well, she looked pale.
She was in bed all day yesterday.
So you and you infer that she’s not well.
Astronomers can infer the mass of a star by its movement.
So they don’t weigh the star, but it can work it out from some other evidence.
We can infer from his behaviour that he does not like you.
You infer the meaning, and the existence of something, you can infer from something, you can reasonably infer something as well.
You fairly close to the facts even reasonably infer the facts.
So infers is on of the verb form, inferring note the second r
You’re going to put in the same for inferred.
And the noun form is inference, inference.
So infer, inference for the noun.
And some synonyms, deduce, conclude, assume.
Speculate, guess, guess and reckon, reckon is the informal form of guess or speculate.
When you recall something you remember it.
You call it back into your mind.
So this man here was recalling d day.
I think in World War Two, he’s an old soldier.
He’s recalling the war.
So the recall, call again, you call something back into your mind, you remember it.
So for example, I suddenly recalled where I left my phone.
People often recall with sadness how life used to be simpler.
And her, now the third full sentence here is using recall as a noun.
And we say recall, recall.
So her recall detail is amazing.
She’s going to very good memory ,her recall so you can use it as a noun.
But the stress in the word moves to the front.
Here’s the verb collocations, recall a conversation, you can recall something with happiness or sadness.
But is you doing it with happiness, you can fondly recall, fondly recall something.
You can correctly recall, you correctly recall details.
And some verb forms, recalls, recalling, recalled now I said one noun form is recall.
But you can also have recollection, recollection.
My recollection was correct.
And some synonyms, remember, remind, think of.
And so there are your seven words for thought processes anticipate, appreciate, comprehend, conceive, envisage, infer, recall.
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