سلامتی و بهزیستی

دوره: چهارصد واژه ضروری برای آیلتس / فصل: پزشکی و سلامت / درس 3

سلامتی و بهزیستی

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متن انگلیسی درس

In this lecture we’re going to look at some words connected with health and well-being.

Here are the seven words, blood pressure, cognitive, pharmacology, intake, mental, posture and recover

The next word or phrase really, is blood pressure, blood pressure.

And blood pressure is the amount of force with, which blood flows around your body and you can see the person in the picture is measuring their blood pressure with the pad around their arm.

The nurse will monitor your blood pressure.

The drugs will help to lower your blood pressure.

Her blood pressure has dropped dramatically in the last hour.

So she’s very very ill.

Some common collocations some very precise language here as well.

Diastolic blood pressure, so blood pressure is measured using two numbers.

There’s diastolic and there’s systolic blood pressure.

And the first number you usually given a blood pressure with two numbers the first number the systolic that measures the pressure in your blood vessels when your heart beats.

And the second number the diastolic blood pressure measures the pressure in your blood vessels when your heart rests between beats.

You can have high blood pressure, and also raised blood pressure which is very similar to high blood pressure and the opposite is low blood pressure.

And in between normal blood pressure.

And you check blood pressure, you check someone’s blood pressure or you can take blood pressure.

You can take someone’s blood pressure.

No synonyms. It’s a very precise phrase there.

So blood pressure.

The next word is cognitive, cognitive.

And cognitive relates to the mental processes involved in knowing things, in learning things, understanding things.

So the man in the picture is playing chess and you need very good cognitive skills to play chess.

As children get older their cognitive skills become stronger.

This man is Lev Vygotsky a famous Russian psychologists and Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development has been very influential.

Some people with depression can benefit from cognitive therapy.

So cognitive is an adjective.

And the adverb is cognitively, cognitively.

And there is also a noun form cognition, cognition.

So cognitive, cognition.

Some common collocations cognitive development, cognitive therapy, cognitive skills and cognitive dissonance, cognitive dissonance.

This is the mental stress you feel or that a person feels when they have one belief but they’re faced with a contradictory belief.

Some synonyms for cognitive, mental, intellectual, thinking.

So they are cognitive.

Here’s your next word then and it’s pharmacology, pharmacology, which is the branch of science related to drugs and medicines.

And it’s made up of two parts Pharma which is short for pharmaceutical as in pharmaceutical drugs or medicines.

And at the end ology which means it’s a suffix meaning the study of, as in biology or geology.

Here are some example sentences.

He studied pharmacology at London for three years.

He was recently appointed professor of clinical pharmacology.

And here is pharmacology but turned into an adjective pharmacological.

So pharmacological treatment of mental disease is often long term.

You often need to take drugs for a long time if you have mental disease.

So here’s the adjective again pharmacological.

And somebody who works in this field is a pharmacologist, pharmacologist.

Here are some common collocations clinical pharmacology, molecular pharmacology and you can study pharmacology as well.

There are no real synonyms because it’s a very precise word pharmacology.

The next word is intake, intake.

So your intake of something.

So food, wate,r medicine is the amount that you take in that you consume of that thing.

So how much you eat how much you drink.

Take in basically intake, means take in.

So your intake of alcohol should not exceed two units per day.

You must reduce your sugar intake.

We will have a fresh intake of students next week.

And it’s a noun so you can say intakes but it’s very rarely used.

Some common collocations an intake of something, an intake of sugar for example, you can cut the intake or reduce the intake of something.

And doctors often talk about restrict the intake, restricting the intake of sugar for example.

A daily intake is a common collocation your recommended intake, and alcohol intake and intake of alcohol.

So you can use intake in these two different ways alcohol intake, intake of alcohol.

And some synonyms, consumption is a common synonym for intake or simply take in, there you are then intake.

The next word is mental, mental. And mental means things relating to thought, processes to thinking but it also relates to the states or health of a person’s mind.

What we call mental health for example, depression.

This man has poor mental health, he’s depressed.

Some examples.

Children undergo rapid mental development in the first few years of life.

After returning from war, he developed severe mental health problems.

She underwent a lot of mental anguish after the death of her mother.

So mental is an adjective and the adverb form is mentally, mentally.

And some common collocations a mental illness.

So mental here was an adjective, you could be mentally ill so mentally is an adverb here the adjective is illness.

Mental development, mental anguish.

And some synonyms for mental.

The first three relate to thought processes, so intellectual, thought, cerebral.

So people are still with the brain, using the brain.

The next to relate it to mental health. So psychiatric, or mad.

Now it depends on the context.

Mad is a very informal way of talking about somebody with mental health problems.

There’s also the word psychotic.

However we don’t talk about a psychotic illness, we talk about a psychotic disorder.

So the collocation is important here, so it’s mental illness but psychotic disorder.

So here you are mental.

Okay let’s look at this woman she’s running along, she’s upright.

She has a very good posture when she’s running.

Posture, so posture is the position in which you stand or sit or in this case run.

She had good posture but in this picture you have a woman with bad posture, she’s leaning forward her spine hurts.

And is still with position or pos.

Some example sentences, you can make your stomachs seem flatter by improving your posture.

You must maintain good posture when you run.

And this is diagrammed the position of skeleton in good and in poor posture.

So good posture on the left.

Poor posture on the right.

So we talk about good posture and bad posture, correct posture.

And you should adopt a posture.

So you take on a good posture, on a bad posture.

Synonyms include position, stance and pose.

here you are posture.

Here’s the next word then recover, recover.

So when you get, when you get in it an illness or an injury you often get better afterwards.

So you recover you get back to full health.

So the woman in the picture maybe she has the flu.

She’s trying to recover.

Some examples then, he is recovering from surgery so the dog went into surgeries got some stitches as to where this neck collar.

A mother is recovering quickly in hospital after a car crash.

He never fully recovered from the virus.

So recover is a verb so recovers, recovering, recovered. Recovery is the noun form recovery.

Some common collocations you recover from something, to recover from something.

A patient recovers, now recovering can also be used as an adjective so you can be a recovering addict.

And you can be fully recovered.

Some synonyms for recover Include the recuperate, heal, bounce back, now bounce back is an informal phrase, you bounce back from an illness.

Rebound, convalesce is something that you often do in hospital, and mend.

These are a common phrase we use in British English on the mand.

So when you are recovering in the process of recovering you are on the mend.

There’s your word recover.

Here are your seven words and phrase again, blood pressure, cognitive, pharmacology, intake, mental, posture, recover.

And as always, don’t forget to do the practice quiz and download, print out and complete the vocabulary record.

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