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متن انگلیسی درس
In this lecture we’re going to look at seven words connected to geography.
Here are the seven words, hemisphere, equator, longitude, latitude, tide, crater, summit.
So here’s the first word hemisphere hemisphere.
It’s one half of the earth.
One half of the earth from the Greek.
Hemi which means half, Hemisphere half sphere half of the world.
So for example in the southern hemisphere the height of summer is in January.
Countries in the western hemisphere are predominantly Democratic.
If you live in the far north of the Northern Hemisphere you can glimpse the Northern lights.
So you can see we got, Southern Hemisphere, Western Hemisphere, northern hemisphere in these
Often don’t talk about the eastern hemisphere though for some reason.
But you can talk about the eastern hemisphere too.
Here’s the equator.
Across the Middle of the earth.
So we can say, the space station orbits 22000 miles above the earth’s equator.
Sarawak Island straddles the equator.
In equatorial countries, it is usually hot all year round.
So you can cross the equator, straddle the equator, you can be south of the equator or north of the equator.
So the adjective of equator is equatorial. So equator, equatorial.
So the stress, the stress moves.
Longitude, longitude. lines of longitude are lines on a map that run from north to south.
The vertical lines they tell you where you are in degrees west or east of what’s called the prime meridian or the Greenwich meridian.
So Warsaw is at a longitude of 21 degrees east of Greenwich.
Determining longitude exactly has been a problem for the safety of shipping.
He measured the latitude and longitude and marked it on the admiralty map.
So we often talk about latitude and longitude or you are longitudinal position, you’re longitudinal position.
So the plural of longitude is longitudes but longitudinal is the adjective.
Longitude often is used in relation to latitude, so lines of latitude are lines on a map that run from west to east.
Horizontal lines and they they tell you how far north or south of the equator you are in degrees.
So Warsaw is at a latitude of 52 degrees north of the equator.
In the middle to high latitudes, rainfall has risen steadily in the last 20 to 30 years.
Vitamin D deficiency is common place at northern latitudes.
We talk about high and low latitude so a high latitude is far from the equator, near the poles. low latitudes are near the equator.
You can be at a latitude, of so many degrees and again latitude and longitude go together.
Next word is tied, tide.
So the tide is the regular daily change in the level of the sea at the coast.
So here we’ve got the tide so low tide I think by the sea by the pier here.
So the island is inaccessible by foot at high tide.
The police report that exceptionally high tides have damaged local beaches.
And some scientists have suggested that strong tides can cause earthquakes.
So you are going to have a high tide and a low tide and a strong tide.
And if the tide is moving from low to high it’s a rising tide.
So tide, tides and the adjective is tidal, tidal.
So the E changes to an a.
Very specialized words so not so many synonyms here but you could current, flow and wave, tidal wave.
A crater is a very large hole in the ground.
Often caused by something hitting it or by an explo… by an explosion and the often fill with water.
To create lakes and this is a picture of a crater at the top of a volcano.
So you had to find a crater at the top of a volcano.
So for example, experts calculate that a three kilometre asteroid could create a crater 60 kilometres wide.
An ancient volcanic crater provides the perfectly shaped circle of Simpson Harbour.
And the bomb gouged out a crater 10 meters across.
So you can have a volcanic crater, deep crater, a shallow crater, and you leave a crater.
An asteroid leaves a crater.
Can not so many synonyms for crater but whole, pit, depression, hollow, bowl.
These are all words that could be used.
And a caldera, caldera a caldera is a crater formed when a massive, massive volcano collapses such as at Yellowstone National Park.
The next word is summit, summit.
The summit of a mountain or of a hill is the top of the mountain or a hill or a hill.
This is the Summit of the Matterhorn.
It’s the very top.
So the first man to reach the summit of Mount Everest was Sir Edmund Hillary.
He reached the summit at about noon.
And the expedition climbed to the summit of the mountain.
So you have this summit of something, you reach this summit you climb to the summit and you can be at the summit.
So some synonyms for summit, include, top, peak, the highest point and the pinnacle.
So there are your seven geography words, hemisphere, equator, longitude, latitude, tide, crater and summit.