Used to

دوره: گرامر انگلیسی در شش دقیقه / اپیزود 17

گرامر انگلیسی در شش دقیقه

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Used to

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In 6 Minute Grammar, Neil, Catherine and Rob share their pasts with you and give lots of examples of used to .

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Neil Hello and welcome to 6 Minute Grammar with me, Neil.

Catherine And me, Catherine. Hello.

Neil In today’s programme we’re talking about things we used to do…

Catherine …in other words, things we did regularly in the past.

Neil Yes, we’ll look at the phrase used to in positive and negative sentences, and in questions.

Catherine We’ll bring you some spelling and pronunciation tips…

Neil And we’ll finish of course with a quiz.

Catherine So, let’s start with some example sentences from Rob. Hello Rob.

Rob Hello.

Catherine Listen carefully and answer this question: What activities did these people do regularly in the past?

Rob Petra used to eat junk food, but now she eats salads and vegetables.

I used to play computer games, but now I read a lot.

Neil So, Petra used to eat junk food and Rob used to play computer games. The words used to in front of an infinitive verb, like used to eat or used to play tell us that someone did an activity regularly, or several times, in the past. Now pronunciation-wise, we say used to with a short /ju/ sound, used to, not a long /ju:/ like in ‘Can I use your phone please?’ It’s not use, it’s use. Here they are together:

Rob I used to use a desktop computer, but now I’ve got a tablet.

Catherine Thanks Rob. And we can see from that example that we often use used to with a verb when the present situation is different to the past - so in the past Rob had a desktop, but now he’s got a tablet.

Neil Now, used to with an infinitive means the activity happened regularly, or repeatedly, in the past. It can also describe a past state or situation, for example: I used to live in Japan, but now I live in London. But to say you did something just once in the past, use the past simple.

Catherine So, the sentence I used to go to the gym on Saturdays means: I went to the gym on many Saturdays in the past. But the sentence I went to the gym last Saturday describes one event in the past, it’s the past simple. To talk about what happens now, use a present tense.

Rob I used to go running every day, but now I go running once a week.

IDENT You’re listening to BBC Learning English.

Catherine And we’re talking about used to . Let’s take a look at negatives. Rob.

Rob My sisters didn’t use to talk to each other much but now they speak every day. Esra didn’t use to have short hair, but she had a hair cut last week.

Catherine Thanks Rob. And the phrase didn’t use to helps us talk about past states and activities that didn’t happen in the past, but they do now. And for all persons, it’s subject plus didn’t plus use to plus an infinitive : My sisters didn’t use to talk; Esra didn’t use to have short hair. And there’s a spelling note here isn’t there Neil?

Neil Yes there is. In positive sentences, used is spelt u-s-e-d , but in negative sentences and questions, it’s just use : u-s-e , without the d at the end. But when we’re speaking, they sound almost exactly the same. Listen to this:

Rob I didn’t use to get up early at the weekend. I used to stay in bed all morning.

Catherine Thanks Rob. Now, let’s take a look at questions. Neil, which school did you use to go to ?

Neil I used to go to the local school.

Catherine OK. So, for questions like which school did you use to go to , it’s did plus subject plus use to plus infinitive . And it’s the same for yes/no questions. Neil, did you use to walk to school?

Neil No, I didn’t. I used to get the bus.

Catherine So, for questions: did , subject , use to and infinitive . And remember, used to is spelt u-s-e ; no d .

Neil OK, it’s time for a quiz. Question 1. How do you spell used in this sentence? I didn’t use to have a tablet.

Catherine It’s u-s-e without d because it’s a negative.

Neil That’s right. Number 2. What’s the missing word? I [BLANK] to use social media every day, but now I only use it once a week.

Catherine And the answer is used with a d . I used to use social media every day.

Neil …is the correct answer. And number three. Is this sentence right or wrong? I used to go to the gym last Friday.

Catherine And that’s wrong, because it’s a past event that happened only once. You can say I went to the gym last Friday , or you can say I used to go to the gym every Friday .

Neil And that’s the end of the quiz - and the end of the show. But there’s more about used to at Join us again for more 6 Minute Grammar.

Both Bye.

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