Linking devices of contrastدوره: گرامر انگلیسی در شش دقیقه / درس 55
Linking devices of contrast
Despite, although, while, whereas… there are lots of words and phrases we can use to link contrasting ideas together. Learn how they work with Finn and Catherine in this episode of 6 Minute Grammar.
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Finn Hello and welcome to 6 Minute Grammar with me, Finn.
Catherine And me, Catherine. Hello.
Finn In this programme, we’re talking about linking devices.
Catherine That’s right! And there are lots of different kinds of linking devices, but today we’re looking at ways of contrasting one idea with another.
Finn So, some words and phrases that do this are however , although and despite . We’ll give you lots of information and examples …
Catherine And of course there’ll be a quiz to see what you’ve learnt.
Finn So, here we go, with our first example sentences from Neil:
Neil Dean and I were the best of friends. Sometimes we completely disagreed.
Catherine OK. Now the ideas in those two sentences contrast with each other a little bit.
Finn The fact that they completely disagreed is slightly surprising or unexpected if they were the best of friends, isn’t it?
Catherine It depends on the friendship but yes, it could be true.
Finn It could be.
Catherine And to express this contrast clearly and in an interesting way, we can link the ideas in the sentences with the word but , like this:
Neil Dean and I were the best of friends, but sometimes we completely disagreed.
Catherine Or we can use the word however , like this:
Neil Dean and I were the best of friends. However , sometimes we completely disagreed.
Finn Now, however doesn’t make two sentences into one long sentence, like the word but does.
Catherine No, as you heard, however usually goes at the start of a new sentence, or, we can sometimes put it at the end of a sentence, like this:
Neil Dean and I were the best of friends. Sometimes we completely disagreed, however .
Finn Right. Now if we prefer to join the two sentences together into one longer sentence, we could use although or even though . And they express surprise more than however or but . Neil.
Neil Although Dean and I were the best of friends, sometimes we completely disagreed.
Catherine Good. The phrase even though works in exactly the same way. And you can use although and even though at the beginning or in the middle of this longer sentence:
Neil Dean and I were the best of friends, even though sometimes we completely disagreed.
IDENT 6 Minute Grammar from BBC Learning English.
Catherine Now let’s take a look at despite and in spite of . They mean the same as each other but do they mean the same as although and even though ?
Finn Actually yes, they do. They’re also used to link and contrast surprising or unexpected ideas and they can go at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. But the grammar is slightly different. Listen:
Neil Despite being the best of friends, Dean and I sometimes completely disagreed.
Catherine So: despite isfollowed by the -ing form of the verb, despite being , We don’t use a subject and a verb after despite .
Finn And in spite of is the same. We can also use a noun phrase instead of an -ing verb. Neil.
Neil Despite our great friendship, Dean and I sometimes completely disagreed.
Catherine OK. So the noun phrase after despite is our great friendship . And one more point about despite and in spite of . They can both be followed by the phrase the fact that plus a subject and a verb. Listen.
Neil In spite of the fact that Dean and I were the best of friends, sometimes we completely disagreed.
Catherine Right. Now we’ll finish with two more linking words, while and whereas .
Finn Yes, these are a bit different. While and whereas are used mainly for contrasting facts. They don’t usually express surprise or any other attitude. Examples please, Neil?
Neil Whereas I studied zoology, Dean studied medieval history.
Catherine So that’s a fact! And again, these words can go at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. So we could also say:
Neil I studied zoology while Dean studied medieval history.
Finn Very good. And now it’s quiz time! Number one. Complete this sentence with either a) although or b) despite . We hardly ever saw our cousins living very near each other.
Catherine And the answer is b) despite because it’s followed by a verb-ing.
Finn Number two. Fill the gap with either a) despite or b) although . Libraries are being closed many people have protested against the move.
Catherine And the answer is b) although .
Finn Number three. Fill the gap with either a) in spite of or b) whereas . Honey is supposed to be good for you sugar is considered bad.
Catherine And it’s b) whereas . Honey is supposed to be good for you whereas sugar is considered bad.
Finn Well done! Congratulations if you got them right at home despite the fact that they were quite difficult!
Catherine Well done indeed. There’s more about this on our website at bbclearningenglish.com. Join us again for more 6 Minute Grammar.
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