Grammar on a camel?

دوره: گرامر انگلیسی در شش دقیقه / اپیزود 11

گرامر انگلیسی در شش دقیقه

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Grammar on a camel?

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Have you ever listened to 6 Minute Grammar? If youve never heard it, nows your chance! Lets find out what a camel has got to do with present perfect as Finn and Alice use the words ever and never to talk about life experiences.

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دانلود اپلیکیشن «زبانشناس»

این اپیزود را می‌توانید به بهترین شکل و با امکانات عالی در اپلیکیشن «زبانشناس» بخوانید

دانلود اپلیکیشن «زبانشناس»

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متن انگلیسی اپیزود

Hello. Welcome to 6 Minute Grammar with me, Finn.

Alice And me, Alice. Hello.

Finn And today we’re talking about the present perfect tense.

Alice That’s right: the present perfect tense. When we use it, how to form it, how to make negatives and questions…

Finn We’ll look at the words ever and never …

Alice And we’ll have some pronunciation tips.

Finn And there’ll be a quiz at the end of the show, so keep listening!

Alice Let’s get started with some present perfect sentences. Hello Catherine!

Catherine Hello.

Alice Some example sentences please…

Catherine I’ve seen Miley Cyrus in concert.

Janie has travelled all over the world.

Finn Thank you, Catherine. So one way we use the present perfect tense is to talk about life experience: things we’ve done at some time in the past.

Alice That’s right and we make the present perfect tense with a subject, plus have or has , plus a past participle. Once more please Catherine.

Catherine I’ve seen Miley Cyrus in concert.

Janie has travelled all over the world.

Alice Now we don’t say when this experience happened, because with the present perfect, we are interested in the experience itself.

Finn That’s right. The present perfect often focusses on what happened, not when it happened.

Alice Ok. So Finn, ask me a question about something I’ve done.

Finn Ok. Have you seen Skyfall?

Alice Have I seen Skyfall? The James Bond film? Yes, I have: I’ve seen it three times.

Finn Three times, eh? So with the present perfect we don’t say when, but we can say how many times the experience happened.

Alice Now, let’s look at ever and never . They basically mean ‘at any time in someone’s life’.

Finn Ever is very common in questions. Alice: Have you ever eaten sushi?

Alice Yes, I have. I love sushi.

Finn Me too. And Alice, have you ever ridden a camel?

Alice No Finn, no: I have never ridden a camel.

Finn Well, actually, neither have I. And we use never to talk about life experiences that we haven’t had. Alice has never ridden a camel. Though I think you should try it: I hear it’s fun!

Alice Really? Let’s do it together.

Finn Yes, ok.

Alice Let’s look at pronunciation. We use lots of short forms with present perfect.

Finn First, I have is often shortened to I’ve . I have read that book becomes…

Alice I’ve read that book.

Finn And has becomes just a s or a z sound. So instead of Janie has travelled it’s…

Alice Janie’s travelled.

Finn And as for negatives: we make them by putting not between have or has and the past participle. But we can shorten have not to haven’t and has not to hasn’t . Catherine.

Catherine I haven’t seen all the Bond films.

Rachel hasn’t taught English in Japan.

Finn Now, in sentences with never , the subject and have or has can be shortened. I have becomes I’ve , and he has becomes he’s . Catherine

Catherine I’ve never heard of Sportlobster.

Poor Alice - She’s never ridden a camel!

IDENT You’re listening to BBC Learning English.

Finn And we’re talking about the present perfect tense. Alice, now ask me a question about my life experiences.

Alice Ok… Finn, have you seen Skyfall?

Finn Well, a negative answer would be No, I haven’t . But my answer is: Yes I have . Guess how many times I’ve seen Skyfall?

Alice Ok… I think you’ve seen it five times.

Finn No… not five times.

Alice Ok. How many times have you seen Skyfall ?

Finn I’ve seen Skyfall 20 times … I watched the DVD last night; I saw it on TV last week; and I saw it at the cinema when it first came out …

Alice Ok, Finn - we get the picture… When we answer a present perfect question about our experience, we can add a past simple sentence to give more information - like saying when the experience happened.

Finn Quiz time?! So here’s question one - and play along at home if you want. Alice, you have to answer with never . So: Have you ever seen a ghost?

Alice No, I’ve never seen a ghost.

Finn Are you sure?

Alice Maybe.

Finn Now, for question two, answer with times. How many times have you eaten sushi?

Alice I’ve eaten sushi about a million times.

Finn About a million times? Really? Only a million? Now for question three, I need a short answer . Have you ever visited BBC Learning English on Facebook?

Alice Yes, I have!

Finn OK - me too. And as well as on our Facebook page, you can find lots more information about the present perfect tense on our website at Join us again for more 6 Minute Grammar.

Both Bye.

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