Grammar on a camel?

دوره: گرامر انگلیسی در شش دقیقه / اپیزود 11

گرامر انگلیسی در شش دقیقه

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Grammar on a camel?

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Have you ever listened to 6 Minute Grammar? If youve never heard it, nows your chance! Lets find out what a camel has got to do with present perfect as Finn and Alice use the words ever and never to talk about life experiences.

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دانلود اپلیکیشن «زبانشناس»

این اپیزود را می‌توانید به بهترین شکل و با امکانات عالی در اپلیکیشن «زبانشناس» بخوانید

دانلود اپلیکیشن «زبانشناس»

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متن انگلیسی اپیزود

Finn

Hello. Welcome to 6 Minute Grammar with me, Finn.

Alice

And me, Alice. Hello.

Finn

And today we’re talking about the present perfect tense.

Alice

That’s right: the present perfect tense. When we use it, how to form it, how to make negatives and questions…

Finn

We’ll look at the words ever and never… Alice

And we’ll have some pronunciation tips.

Finn

And there’ll be a quiz at the end of the show, so keep listening!

Alice

Let’s get started with some present perfect sentences. Hello Catherine!

Catherine

Hello.

Alice

Some example sentences please… Catherine

I’ve seen Miley Cyrus in concert.

Janie has travelled all over the world.

Finn

Thank you, Catherine. So one way we use the present perfect tense is to talk about life experience: things we’ve done at some time in the past.

Alice

That’s right and we make the present perfect tense with a subject, plus have or has, plus a past participle. Once more please Catherine.

Catherine

I’ve seen Miley Cyrus in concert.

Janie has travelled all over the world.

Alice

Now we don’t say when this experience happened, because with the present perfect, we are interested in the experience itself.

Finn

That’s right. The present perfect often focusses on what happened, not when it happened.

Alice

Ok. So Finn, ask me a question about something I’ve done.

Finn

Ok. Have you seen Skyfall?

Alice

Have I seen Skyfall? The James Bond film? Yes, I have: I’ve seen it three times.

Finn

Three times, eh? So with the present perfect we don’t say when, but we can say how many times the experience happened.

Alice

Now, let’s look at ever and never. They basically mean ‘at any time in someone’s life’.

Finn

Ever is very common in questions. Alice: Have you ever eaten sushi?

Alice

Yes, I have. I love sushi.

Finn

Me too. And Alice, have you ever ridden a camel?

Alice

No Finn, no: I have never ridden a camel.

Finn

Well, actually, neither have I. And we use never to talk about life experiences that we haven’t had. Alice has never ridden a camel. Though I think you should try it: I hear it’s fun!

Alice

Really? Let’s do it together.

Finn

Yes, ok.

Alice

Let’s look at pronunciation. We use lots of short forms with present perfect.

Finn

First, I have is often shortened to I’ve. I have read that book becomes… Alice

I’ve read that book.

Finn

And has becomes just a s or a z sound. So instead of Janie has travelled it’s… Alice

Janie’s travelled.

Finn

And as for negatives: we make them by putting not between have or has and the past participle. But we can shorten have not to haven’t and has not to hasn’t. Catherine.

Catherine

I haven’t seen all the Bond films.

Rachel hasn’t taught English in Japan.

Finn

Now, in sentences with never, the subject and have or has can be shortened. I have becomes I’ve, and he has becomes he’s. Catherine Catherine

I’ve never heard of Sportlobster.

Poor Alice – She’s never ridden a camel!

IDENT

You’re listening to BBC Learning English.

Finn

And we’re talking about the present perfect tense. Alice, now ask me a question about my life experiences.

Alice

Ok… Finn, have you seen Skyfall?

Finn

Well, a negative answer would be No, I haven’t. But my answer is: Yes I have. Guess how many times I’ve seen Skyfall?

Alice

Ok… I think you’ve seen it five times.

Finn

No… not five times.

Alice

Ok. How many times have you seen Skyfall?

Finn

I’ve seen Skyfall 20 times… I watched the DVD last night; I saw it on TV last week; and I saw it at the cinema when it first came out… Alice

Ok, Finn – we get the picture… When we answer a present perfect question about our experience, we can add a past simple sentence to give more information – like saying when the experience happened.

Finn

Quiz time?! So here’s question one – and play along at home if you want. Alice, you have to answer with never. So: Have you ever seen a ghost?

Alice

No, I’ve never seen a ghost.

Finn

Are you sure?

Alice

Maybe.

Finn

Now, for question two, answer with times. How many times have you eaten sushi?

Alice

I’ve eaten sushi about a million times.

Finn

About a million times? Really? Only a million? Now for question three, I need a short answer. Have you ever visited BBC Learning English on Facebook?

Alice

Yes, I have!

Finn

OK – me too. And as well as on our Facebook page, you can find lots more information about the present perfect tense on our website at bbclearningenglish.com. Join us again for more 6 Minute Grammar. Bye. Bye.

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