Have to and must

دوره: گرامر انگلیسی در شش دقیقه / اپیزود 5

گرامر انگلیسی در شش دقیقه

60 اپیزود

Have to and must

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Its time for 6 Minute Grammar. This week Finn and Alice discuss how we talk about obligations in English using have to and must. Remember, you dont have to listen to it right now, you can subscribe to the podcast version.

  • زمان مطالعه 5 دقیقه
  • سطح سخت

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متن انگلیسی اپیزود

Finn Hello. Welcome to 6 Minute Grammar with me, Finn.

Alice
And me, Alice. Hello.

Finn In today’s programme we’re talking about have to and must…

Alice Have to and must. We’ll look at what they mean…

Finn We’ll find out how to use them in sentences…

Alice We’ll have a pronunciation tip…

Finn And we’ll do some practice with a quiz.

Alice
So let’s get started. We use both must and have to in front of verbs, to talk about obligations – things that are necessary. In natural English, they often have very similar meanings. And here’s Catherine to demonstrate.

Catherine
I have to leave work early today.

I must leave work early today.

Finn Thanks Catherine. I have to leave and I must leave. Those sentences have pretty similar meanings – but that’s not always the case.

Alice
So let’s look more closely at have to. Catherine.

Catherine
My doctor says I have to lose weight.

If you go to Russia, you have to get a visa.

Alice
So we use have to for things that are necessary – including laws. You can’t go to some countries without a visa – you have to get one.

Finn Yes, with have to , the obligation usually comes from someone else: a doctor, a government… or maybe your boss.

Alice
And this is where must is sometimes different. Must often suggests that the speaker decided themselves that it’s necessary to do something. Here are some examples:

Catherine I’m putting on weight. I must join a gym.

I haven’t spoken to my sister this week. I must give her a call.

Finn So that’s must for personal necessities.

Alice We can also use must to make recommendations, like this:

Catherine When you go to Germany, you must try Bratwurst. It’s delicious!

Alice We sometimes see mu s t in formal notices or rules of an organisation. A hospital sign might say:

Catherine Visitors must wash their hands before leaving the ward.

Alice Now, let’s look at negatives. First: don’t have to.

Finn Ok: if you don’t have to do something, it isn’t necessary to do it, but you can if you want. Catherine.

Catherine
In the UK, you don’t have to drink alcohol in pubs.

Alice Don’t have to means: it’s your choice. But mustn’t means: don’t do it: It is necessary not to do it.

Catherine
You mustn’t eat meat that’s old.

Finn In other words: don’t eat meat that’s old – it could make you ill.

Alice
So – we can use mustn’t for both rules, and personal recommendations. Catherine.

Catherine
You mustn’t forget to call your sister!

Passengers must not speak to the driver while the bus is moving.

Alice Passengers must not … that sounds serious.

Finn
It does. The long form must not is more formal than the short form mustn’t.

IDENT
You’re listening to BBC Learning English dot com.

Finn And we’re talking about must and have to. Now, a quick word about tenses.

Alice Yes: it’s important to note that we don’t use must in the future or the past. Instead, it’s will have to for the future and had to for the past. Catherine.

Catherine
You must talk to your doctor. You’ll have to see her tomorrow.

You didn’t have to answer all the questions in yesterday’s exam, but you must answer all the questions in today’s exam.

Finn
Now: time for that pronunciation tip we promised you.

Alice
Yes: In natural speech, have to and must can get a bit squashed.

Catherine I have to go to the doctor.

I must join a gym.

Alice
So have to sounds like hafta: I have to [hafta] go to the doctor. Hafta.

Finn And must sounds like ‘ mus’ without the final ‘t’ sound: I ‘musjoin’ a gym. ‘ Mus’.

Alice So listen out for those sounds in our quiz.

Finn
Ooh yes, we must have a quiz before we go. I’ll say a sentence with must. You decide if I’m talking about a rule or if it’s just a personal recommendation. Ready? Number 1. I need some exercise. I must go to the gym.

Alice
And that’s a personal recommendation.

Finn
That’s right… number 2. Again, is this a rule or is it a personal recommendation? You mustn’t smoke in the building.

Alice
No smoking in the buildings – that’s a rule.

Finn That’s right. Number 3. I’m going to say a sentence in the present tense, and you have to put it into the past. Here goes: I must have a cup of tea!

Alice
And in the past it’s: I had to have a cup of tea.

Finn
Well done if you got all those right!

Alice There’s lots more about must and have to on our website at bbclearningenglish.com. Join us again for more 6 Minute Grammar.

All Bye.

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