-ing and -ed (Participle) Clausesدوره: گرامر انگلیسی در شش دقیقه / درس 57
-ing and -ed (Participle) Clauses
Callum has cut himself shaving \- and Catherine uses this to explain all about present and past participle clauses. There are lots of examples and a quiz to test yourself. Thats all in this edition of 6 Minute Grammar.
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Hello and welcome to 6 Minute Grammar with me, Callum.
And me, Catherine.
Today we’re focussing on participle clauses .
Catherine Yes, that’s clauses that begin with present or past participles .
We’ll find out what they are and how to use them.
Catherine And there’ll be lots of examples and also a quiz. Before we start though Callum, are you all right?
Callum What do you mean?
Catherine Well you’ve got little bits of tissue stuck on your face.
Callum Oh that, you noticed.
Catherine Well, it’s hard to miss them really.
Callum I cut myself shaving .
Catherine I see, that’s convenient.
Callum Not really, it hurt.
Catherine But it did give you a perfect example of a present participle clause , which is today’s topic.
Callum Yes it did! Let’s use that then as our first example. I cut myself shaving . First though, let ‘s remind everyone what a present participle is:
Catherine Sure. The present participle is the -ing form of the verb. We use it to form the continuous verb forms. So if the infinitive is shave, the present participle is shaving .
Callum The past continuous of shave is: “I was shaving . “
Catherine And something happened while you were shaving , Callum
Yes, I cut myself.
Catherine You did. Now we can make a number of different sentences with this information. You could say:
Callum I was shaving and I cut myself or: While I was shaving I cut myself.
Catherine Let’s just swap those clauses around
Callum I cut myself while I was shaving .
Catherine OK, now because the subject of each of those clauses is the same - you - we can make the sentence more efficient and sound more natural by not repeating the pronoun and auxiliary that goes with it.
Callum I cut myself while shaving .
Catherine This is fine, but we can also leave out the conjunction - while. Which leaves us with:
I cut myself shaving .
Catherine So we can use this structure when two things happen at the same time.
Callum Yes, lets have some more examples. Catherine, what were you doing last night?
Catherine I was sitting on the sofa. I was watching TV. So I can say: I was sitting on the sofa watching TV. Callum: What are we doing now?
We are in the studio. We are recording 6 Minute Grammar. We ‘re in the studio recording 6 Minute Grammar.
Catherine Today we’re talking about participle clauses .
Callum We’ve looked at one way you can use a present participle clause; now let’s look at a past participle clause . First Catherine, let ‘s review what a past participle is.
It ‘s the third form of the verb, so if you remember go, went, gone, or do, did, done; gone and done are the past participles . For regular verbs this is the -ed form . We use the past participle in perfect verb forms and also the passive.
Callum So how would we use a past participle clause ?
Catherine Like present participle clauses, it ‘s a way of being more economical with language and avoiding repetition. Listen to these sentences.
The dog was hit by the car. It wasn ‘t hurt. The dog that was hit by the car wasn ‘t hurt. The dog hit by the car wasn ‘t hurt.
Catherine So we started there with two sentences. Both contained clauses that had the same subject. We have the dog in the first sentence, and in the second it’s referred to with the pronoun it.
Neil The dog was hit by a car. It wasn ‘t hurt.
We can the combine these into one sentence by using a relative clause.
Neil The dog that was hit by the car wasn ‘t hurt.
Catherine And we can further shorten this by leaving out the relative pronoun and the auxiliary that goes with it. This leaves us with:
Neil The dog hit by the car wasn ‘t hurt.
Callum So effectively what we do is combine all the bits that identify the subject into one phrase.
Catherine Yes, it’s like a reduced relative clause that becomes the subject of the sentence. You can see this form quite regularly in warning notices in public places.
Neil Cars parked here will be clamped. Bicycles chained to this fence will be removed.
Cars parked here is a shortened version of: Cars which are parked here …
Callum And bicycles chained here is a shortened version of: Bicycles which are chained here.
Catherine That’s right.
Callum And now: quiz time. Join the two sentences together into one. Here’s number one:
Catherine I saw the cat. It was playing with a mouse. I saw the cat. It was playing with a mouse.
Callum And the answer is: I saw the cat playing with a mouse. Number two:
Catherine The gold was stolen from the bank. It was never found. The gold was stolen from the bank. It was never found.
Callum The answer is: The gold stolen from the bank was never found. And finally number three.
Catherine She made a lot of money. She was running her own company. She made a lot of money. She was running her own company.
Callum And the answer is: She made a lot of money running her own company. Well done if you got them all right.
Catherine And that’s all from us for this programme. There’s more about this topic on our website.
Callum Do join us again for more 6 Minute Grammar.
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