Why do gibbons sing duets?دوره: انگلیسی شش دقیقه ای / اپیزود 196
Why do gibbons sing duets?
Why do gibbons sing duets and what has this got to do with the evolution of the human language?
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Note: This is not a word-for-word transcript
Rob Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I’m Rob…
Neil And hello! I’m Neil.
Rob Hi there Neil. Have you ever had a close encounter with a monkey or an ape?
Neil Well I’m sitting right next to you, Rob?
Rob Very funny. Neil is referring to the fact that all humans are descended from apes, and apes and monkeys belong to a group of animals called primates. The difference is that monkeys have tails, and apes don’t.
Neil Well, I didn’t know that. On a serious note… I had a close shave with some monkeys once in Bali.
Rob A close shave is where you only just manage to avoid a dangerous situation. So Neil, what happened?
Neil I was walking up a mountain on my own and suddenly a bunch of monkeys jumped out of nowhere, blocking my path.
Rob Oh goodness! OK. So what did you do?
Neil After standing there for ages while the monkeys screeched at me, I turned round and walked back the way I came.
Rob OK. If you screech at someone it means to make a loud, high and unpleasant sound. So the monkeys won that face-off , then!
Neil Absolutely! Yes, they did! And a face-off, by the way, means an argument or fight.
Rob Well, today’s show is about gibbons and the different sounds they make. Gibbons are small apes that live in Southeast Asia. And while Neil ‘s monkeys screech unpleasantly, gibbons sound like they are singing.
Neil Musical apes - that’s nice! So how about today’s quiz question, Rob?
Rob OK, good idea. How far can a gibbon’s voice travel through the forest? Is it…
or c) 5km?
Neil Hmm. Well, I have to guess and I’m going to say b) 1km.
Rob You’ve never heard one.
Neil Never heard one…
Rob OK. We’ll find out later on in the programme whether you’re right or wrong. Now let’s listen to what a gibbon really sounds like.
Interview with Dr Esther Clarke, researcher at Durham University Interviewer: Let ‘s just hear this. [gibbons calling] That’s an absolutely wonderful, evocative sound, isn’t it? Beautiful sound. And what are they doing there then? That is … I said talking to each other.
Dr Clarke: Well this is their … They’re singing together. So a male and a female, when they hold a territory together, will sing every morning what they call a duet. All the groups…
Interviewer: What we call a duet.
Dr Clarke: Yes, absolutely. And they ‘ll all sing together at the same time, and the whole forest will be alive with this cacophony of song.
Rob So the gibbons make an evocative sound. If something is evocative it brings strong feelings or memories to mind.
Neil And something that is evocative is usually pleasant, Rob.
Rob It is. And what’s also interesting is that the apes are singing in pairs - one male and one female. They are singing duets together. So a duet is a song sung by two people - or in this case, sung by two gibbons!
Neil And a lot of gibbons are singing duets at the same time - which Dr Clarke describes as a cacophony. Cacophony means a mix of loud noises, which often sound out of tune.
Rob And that could easily describe us singing together!
Neil Let’s not do that.
Rob But what’s the reason for the gibbon duets, Neil?
Neil Well, the songs advertise the relationship between the male and the female. And they also help to make clear which territory - or bit of land - belongs to a pair or group of gibbons.
Rob Gibbons also use different sounds to alert - or warn - other gibbons about danger from predators - these are animals that eat other animals. The gibbons use a quiet ‘hoo hoo’ call to communicate that a leopard is nearby, and an even quieter ‘hoo hoo’ call for an eagle.
Neil You’re very good at that Rob.
Rob Thank you.
Neil Now let’s hear more from Dr Clarke about this. How does she describe language?
Dr Esther Clarke, researcher at Durham University Yes, so the idea is that if we find things like context-specific calling in non-human primates, it suggests that way back in time the ancestor that we shared with them also had context-specific calling so basically it just gives us some clues [as] to the evolutionary roots of complex communication like language.
Rob Dr Clarke says that if we go far enough back in time humans and other primates such as monkeys and apes have the same ancestor.
Neil Right. And ancestor means an animal - or human - from the past that a modern animal or human has descended from. So if this common ancestor used context-specific calls like modern gibbons - then it could have passed on this ability to humans a long time ago.
Rob Context-specific calling means different calls for different situations, for example one call for ‘leopard’ and another for ‘eagle’.
Neil And evolutionary means a gradual process of change or development.
Rob OK, let’s have the answer to the quiz question. Earlier I asked: How far can a gibbon’s voice travel through the forest? Is it: a) 500m b) 1km or c) 5km?
Neil And I said b) 1km.
Rob And you were right! A good guess! Perhaps you do know a lot about gibbons. So well done! Now, can we hear today’s words again maybe in a gibbon’s voice Neil?
Neil I’m not sure about that. I’ll do it in a human voice.
a close shave
Rob Thank you. Well, that’s the end of today’s 6 Minute English. You can hear more 6 Minute English programmes on our website at bbclearningenglish.com. Please join us again soon.
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