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دانلود اپلیکیشن «زبانشناس»

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Hi there, guys! Welcome to the next lesson. Here we have the vocabulary part for lesson 33 of 504 Absolutely Essential Words. Let’s start.

Alright, the first word of this lesson would be “volunteer”. Now, volunteer as a noun means a person who enters any service of his or her own free will. And, as a verb, to offer one’s services. Let’s take a look at the examples. A) The draft has been abolished* and replaced by a volunteer army. B) Terry did not hesitate* to volunteer for the most difficult jobs. C) The boys were reluctant* to volunteer their services to help clean up after the dance.

The second word would be “prejudice”. Prejudice, as a noun means an opinion formed without taking time and care to judge fairly; and as a verb it means to harm or injure. A) Prejudice against minority* groups will linger* on as long as people ignore* the facts. B) Eliminating* prejudice should be among the first concerns of a democracy. C) The witness’s weird* behavior prejudiced Nancy’s case.

Our third one is “shrill”. Shrill means having a high pitch; high and sharp in sound; piercing. It’s a noun, an adjective, and a verb at the same time. A) Despite* their small size, crickets make very shrill noises. B) The shrill whistle of the policeman was warning enough for the fugitive* to stop in his tracks. C) A shrill torrent* of insults poured from the mouth of the shrieking* woman.

And, the next one on the list is “jolly”. Jolly means merry; full of fun. Here, we’re using it as an adjective. A) The jolly old man, an admitted bigamist, had forgotten to mention his first wife to his new spouse. B) When the jolly laughter subsided, the pirates began the serious business of dividing the gold. C) Are you aware that a red-suited gentleman with a jolly twinkle in his eyes is stuck in the chimney?

Our next word, “witty”. Witty means cleverly amusing. Again, we have an adjective here. A) Mr Carlson’s witty introduction qualifies* him as a first-rate speaker. B) Fay is too slow to appreciate such witty remarks. C) The lawyer tried to prosecute* the case by being witty and thereby entertaining the jury. So, one more time, witty simply means cleverly amusing.

The next word on the list, “hinder”. Hinder means to hold back; make hard to do. It’s a verb, right? Let’s see the examples. A) Deep mud hindered travel in urban* centers. B) The storm hindered the pursuit* of the fleeing* prisoners. C) Mona’s gloomy* nature hinders her relationships with other people.

The eighth word is “abuse”. Abuse means to make bad use of; use wrongly; treat badly; scold very severely; bad or wrong use; bad treatment. Again, it’s both a verb, and a noun. A) Those who abuse the privileges of the honor system will be penalized. B) The editor apologized* for the abuse we had suffered as a result of his article. C) Brutal* abuse of children in the orphanage was disclosed* by the investigation.

The next one, “mumble”. Mumble means to speak indistinctly. We’re using it as a verb here, but it’s also a noun. A) Ricky mumbled his awkward* apology. B) This speech course will encourage you to stop mumbling and to speak more distinctly. C) When the witness continued to mumble, the judge asked him to speak up. Again, mumble means to speak indistinctly.

The tenth word, “mute”. You’ve probably heard it before. Mute means silent; unable to speak. Let’s see some examples. A) The usually defiant* child stood mute before the principal. B) People are no longer willing to remain mute on the subject of abuse* of gun control. C) The horror of the famine* left the inhabitants* of the land mute with their tragic* memories.

The next one, “wad”. Wad as a noun means small, soft mass; and as a verb it means to roll or crush into a small mass. A) To decrease* the effects of the pressure, the diver put wads of cotton in his ears. B) The officer challenged* George to explain the wad of fifty dollars which he had in his pocket. C) Because the automatic firing mechanism was defective*, the hunter had to wad the powder into the gun by hand.

And, our last one, “retain”. Retain means to keep; remember; employ by payment of a fee. It’s a verb, clearly. A) Despite* her lack* of funds, Mrs Reilly retained a detective* to follow her spouse. B) China dishes have the unique quality* of retaining heat longer than metal pans. C) Like the majority* of people, I can retain the tune but not the words of a song.

Alright, we’re done with this part. See you in the next part, goodbye.

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