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دانلود اپلیکیشن «زبانشناس»

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Hi there, guys! Welcome to the next lesson. Lesson 31 of 504 Absolutely Essential Words. Are you ready? Let’s go!

The first word for this lesson would be “commuter”. Commuter means one who travels regularly, especially over a considerable distance, between home and work. So, as you can guess, it’s a noun. Let’s see the examples. A) The average commuter would welcome a chance to live in the vicinity* of his or her work. B) Have your commuter’s ticket verified* by the conductor. C) A novel* educational program gives college credit to commuters who listen to a lecture while they are traveling to work. So, one more time, commuter means a person who travels some distance to work on a regular basis.

Now, the second one, “confine”. Confine means to keep in; to hold in. It’s a verb. A) The fugitive* was caught and confined to jail for another two years. B) A virus that was circulating* in the area confined Al to his house. C) Polio confined President Roosevelt to a wheelchair. Confine simply means to keep in. It’s also a noun, but we’re not using it as a noun, here.

The third word is “idle”. Idle as an adjective means not doing anything; not busy; lazy; without any good reason or cause. And as a verb it means to waste (time). A) Any attempt to study was abandoned* by the student, who idled away the morning. B) The idle hours of a holiday frequently* provide the best time to take stock. C) Do not deceive* yourself into thinking that these are just idle rumors.

Alright, our next one, “idol”. The same pronunciation, with a different meaning, and a different spelling. These two words are “homophones”. Idol, is a noun and it means a thing, usually an image, that is worshiped; a person or thing that is loved very much. Let’s see the examples. A) This small metal idol illustrates* the art of ancient Rome. B) John Wayne was the idol of many young people who liked cowboy movies. C) Scientists are still trying to identify* this idol found in the ruins.

The next word of this lesson is “jest”. Jest is both a noun, and a verb and it means joke; fun; mockery; thing to be laughed at; to joke; to poke fun. A) Though he spoke in jest, Mark was undoubtedly* giving us a message. B) Do not jest about matters of morality. C) In some quarters, honesty and hard work have become subjects of jest. So, again, jest means a thing to be laughed at; to joke.

The next one, “patriotic”. Patriotic means loving one’s country; showing love and loyal support for one’s country. It’s an adjective, right? A) It is patriotic to accept your responsibilities to your country. B) The patriotic attitude of the captive* led him to refuse to cooperate with the enemy. C) Nathan Hale’s patriotic statement has often been quoted*: “I regret that I have but one life to give for my country”.

And the next one, “dispute” Dispute as a verb means to disagree; to oppose; to try to win. And as a noun it means a debate or disagreement. A) Our patriotic* soldiers disputed every inch of ground during the battle. B) The losing team disputed the contest up until the final* minute of play. C) Many occupants* of the building were attracted* by the noisy dispute. So, one more time, it means to oppose; a disagreement.

The next word of this lesson would be “valor”. Valor means bravery; courage. It’s a noun. A) The valor of the Vietnam veterans deserves the highest commendation. B) No one will dispute the valor of Washington’s men at Valley Forge. C) The fireman’s valor in rushing into the flaming house saved the occupants* from a horrid* fate. So, valor simply means bravery.

The next word we have here is “lunatic”. Lunatic as a noun means a crazy person. And, as an adjective it means insane; extremely foolish. Let’s take a look at the examples. A) Only a lunatic would willingly descend* into the monster’s cave. B) Certain lunatic ideas persist* even though they have been rejected* by all logical* minds. C) My roommate has some lunatic ideas about changing the world.

Our next one, “vein”. It means mood; a distinctive style; a blood vessel that carries blood to the heart; a crack or seam in a rock filled with a different mineral. It’s a noun. A) A vein of lunacy* seemed to run in the family. B) Mario’s wrist was severely* cut by the rock, causing his vein to bleed heavily. C) Explorations disclosed* the rich vein of copper in the mountain.

The next word is “uneventful”. Uneventful means without important or striking happenings. It’s an adjective, right? A) After the variety* of bewildering* experiences at the start of our trip, we were happy that the rest of the journey was uneventful. B) Our annual* class outing proved quite uneventful. C) The meeting seemed uneventful but expert observers realized that important decisions were being made.

And, the last one for this lesson, “fertile”. Fertile means bearing seeds or fruit; producing much of anything. It’s an adjective. Let’s see the examples. A) Chicks hatch from fertile eggs. B) The loss of their fertile lands threw the farmers into a panic. C) A fertile mind need never be uneasy about finding life uneventful*.

Alright, the vocabulary part for lesson 31 is finished. See you in the next part, “Words in Use 1”.

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