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متن انگلیسی درس

Globalization

Today, it is not at all abnormal for the goods you purchase to come from around the world. Sometimes, a single item is comprised of parts constructed in many different countries. This is applicable to almost anything you can buy today. Consider a sweater—the wool may be woven by a robot in China, dyed using artificial colors from India, and sold in the United States.

Long ago, the fiscal cost of importing or exporting items from foreign countries was high, and manufacturers considered the practice to be fiscally irresponsible. By contrast, prices were low for goods that were made at home or in adjacent countries. Nowadays, however, the convenience of importing and exporting goods is in large part due to globalization. Globalization means more closely-connected countries. Merchants broker deals between entrepreneurs from across the globe to consolidate their costs and configure the lowest prices for their products.

Imagine your company wants to start manufacturing bicycles and selling them. If a factory close to home did everything, it would be expensive—a bureaucracy would need to approve every decision, and its members would need to be paid. Some workers would be hired to mine the aluminum and others to find the rubber; then others would build the bikes and market them to local stores. However, dividing the tasks evenly between different countries in order to deduct or minimize certain costs makes a lot more sense. Paying for metal mined in Brazil and shaped in the Philippines can save manufacturing costs. Building the bikes in China, where prices are low, and selling them to Japan, where prices are high, can help a business owner make higher profits. The consensus among many traders is that globalization has helped them become wealthy.

Globalization, however, has its negative side as well, as local workers sometimes lose out to absent laborers in distant lands. For this reason, many commentators deem globalization as something negative; the ideological differences between supporters of globalization may clash with politicians who pass laws that try to limit it. Yet despite critiques, globalization continues to grow stronger. United States’ franchises like McDonalds, for example, can be found around the world, and almost all machines have parts that are made in China:

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