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دانلود اپلیکیشن «زبانشناس»
این درس را میتوانید به بهترین شکل و با امکانات عالی در اپلیکیشن «زبانشناس» بخوانید
متن انگلیسی درس
Environment over convenience
Plastic shopping bags are utilized almost everywhere. They are lightweight, strong, and inexpensive. Customers like them because they make carrying goods so convenient. Stores of all kinds print advertising messages on the bags and give them to customers. Why then, are so many countries regulating or even banning their use?
Unfortunately, because of these very attributes, plastic bags have an adverse effect on the environment. Their low cost leads to their overuse. For example, environmental groups have estimated that in Taiwan, citizens used to discard 16 million plastic bags a day. Residents of the state of Massachusetts in the United States used more than two billion plastic bags per year. Since plastic is made from chemicals found in oil, these single-use bags never break down and decay. When they are thrown away, they last forever, along roads, in ponds, and eventually, in the oceans. There is no proven or efficient way to remove plastics once they enter large bodies of water.
Some animals that dwell in the sea, such as turtles and dolphins, mistake plastic bags for food. If a bag becomes stuffed down their throats, it can cause fatal suffocation. Thousands of animals choke on the bags every year. Eventually, the plastic fragments may break down into smaller pieces, but they can still be ingested by a wide range of sea animals, from oysters to whales. In this way, microplastics enter the human food chain and cause tragic damage to people’s health.
Beginning around the year 2000, cities, provinces, and entire countries decided to take action against this form of pollution. At first, municipal governments tried to minimize the use of these bags by requiring stores to charge customers for each one. This reduced the incidence of bags entering the waste stream, yet billions of bags were still being thrown out each day. As the costs of trying to clean the environment rose, more places enacted outright bans on the bags. Now, ecologically-conscious people around the world use alternate means of carrying packages. They bring their own reusable bags when they go shopping, pack their purchases in paper bags, recycle the bags in special collection bins, or have their purchases boxed and delivered to their homes in biodegradable packaging.
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