درس چهاردهم

دوره: 1000 English collocations in 10 minutes a day / درس 14

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Lesson 14 – Academic English

Before you begin writing a paper, it’s a good idea to make an outline (a list of points in an organized order) of the main points you plan to present. The next step is to gather evidence to support your claims, since your work won’t be credible if you propose a theory (or try to challenge or refute a theory – argue against an existing theory) without some proof.

If your paper is going to touch on several issues (talk about several topics) then you’ll need to be especially organized. You can draw a distinction between topics that are different, or draw parallels between examples that are similar. Another way to organize your ideas is to show how they fall into different categories.

After making your outline and gathering the supporting evidence you’ll use to make your case (present your argument), you can write a first draft (first version of the paper) in which you go into detail on the topic. Then, you revise the paper (make improvements to it) until finishing with the final draft.

Let’s say you’re carrying out a study on market trends in developing countries. You can analyze the key factors (important factors) that are influencing the economy, showing how local politics play a role/part (have an effect) in shaping the country’s financial future. Including some specific items that are perfect examples and clear illustrations of your ideas will help prove your points.

At the end of your paper, you should briefly summarize the material you presented and draw

conclusions based on your research. The end of the article is also a good place to raise questions (present questions) for further study.

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